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European Journal of Epidemiology

, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 5–18 | Cite as

Prophylactic use of aspirin: systematic review of harms and approaches to mitigation in the general population

  • Mangesh A. ThoratEmail author
  • Jack Cuzick
Review

Abstract

A careful assessment of benefits and harms is required to assess suitability of aspirin as a prophylactic public health measure. However, comprehensive population-level data on harms are lacking. We collected and synthesized age and sex-specific data on harms relevant to aspirin use in average-risk individuals aged 50 years or older. We conducted systematic literature searches to identify baseline rates of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, peptic ulcer, major extra-cranial bleeding, and case-fatality rates due to GI bleeding or peptic ulcer in general population. The magnitude of aspirin-associated increase, the prevalence and attributable risk of Helicobacter pylori infection on these events in aspirin users was also assessed. Baseline rates of major extracranial bleeding events and GI complications increase with age; an almost threefold to fourfold increase is observed from age 50–54 to 70–74 years. Low or standard-dose aspirin use increases GI bleeding events by 60 % leading to an annual excess of 0.45 and 0.79 GI bleeding events per 1,000 women and men aged 50–54 years respectively. 5–10 % of major GI complications are fatal; a clear age dependence—higher fatality in older individuals, is seen. Eradication of H. pylori infection before aspirin use could reduce the incidence of upper GI complications by 25–30 %. GI complications are increased by about 60 % due to aspirin use but are fatal only in a very small proportion of individuals younger than 70 years of age. Major bleeding events that are comparable in severity to cancer or CVD, are infrequent. Screening and eradication of H. pylori infection could substantially lower aspirin-related GI harms.

Keywords

Aspirin Gastrointestinal bleeding Peptic ulcer Helicobacter pylori Prevention Cancer 

Abbreviations

ACS

American Cancer Society

ATT

Antithrombotic Trialists

BDT

British Doctors’ Trial

BHF

British Heart Foundation

CRUK

Cancer Research UK

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

HPFS

Health Professionals Follow-up Study

HTA

Health Technology Assessment

GI

Gastrointestinal

ISCaP

International Society of Cancer Prevention

LGIB

Lower gastrointestinal bleeding

NANSAIDs

Non-aspirin NSAIDs

NHS

Nurses’ Health Study

ONS

Office of National Statistics

PHS

Physicians’ Health Study

SAH

Sub-arachnoid haemorrhage

UGIB

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding

UGIC

Upper gastrointestinal complications

USPSTF

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

WHS

Women’s Health Study

1,000-PY

1,000 Person years

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was a part of broader review of prophylactic use of aspirin. The review was sponsored by International Society of Cancer Prevention (ISCaP), Cancer Research UK (CRUK), British Heart Foundation (BHF) and American Cancer Society (ACS) and received funding from CRUK, BHF and ACS. Sponsors and funding sources had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Conflict of interest

JC: Member of the Bayer advisory board. MAT: None.

Ethical standard

The manuscript does not contain clinical studies or patient data.

Supplementary material

10654_2014_9971_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (600 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 600 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Cancer Prevention, Wolfson Institute of Preventive MedicineQueen Mary University of LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, Whittington HospitalLondonUK

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