Advertisement

European Journal of Epidemiology

, Volume 28, Issue 7, pp 527–539 | Cite as

A meta-analysis of prospective studies of coffee consumption and mortality for all causes, cancers and cardiovascular diseases

  • Stefano Malerba
  • Federica Turati
  • Carlotta Galeone
  • Claudio Pelucchi
  • Federica Verga
  • Carlo La Vecchia
  • Alessandra Tavani
META-ANALYSIS

Abstract

Several prospective studies considered the relation between coffee consumption and mortality. Most studies, however, were underpowered to detect an association, since they included relatively few deaths. To obtain quantitative overall estimates, we combined all published data from prospective studies on the relation of coffee with mortality for all causes, all cancers, cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary/ischemic heart disease (CHD/IHD) and stroke. A bibliography search, updated to January 2013, was carried out in PubMed and Embase to identify prospective observational studies providing quantitative estimates on mortality from all causes, cancer, CVD, CHD/IHD or stroke in relation to coffee consumption. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to estimate overall relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) using random-effects models. The pooled RRs of all cause mortality for the study-specific highest versus low (≤1 cup/day) coffee drinking categories were 0.88 (95 % CI 0.84–0.93) based on all the 23 studies, and 0.87 (95 % CI 0.82–0.93) for the 19 smoking adjusting studies. The combined RRs for CVD mortality were 0.89 (95 % CI 0.77–1.02, 17 smoking adjusting studies) for the highest versus low drinking and 0.98 (95 % CI 0.95–1.00, 16 studies) for the increment of 1 cup/day. Compared with low drinking, the RRs for the highest consumption of coffee were 0.95 (95 % CI 0.78–1.15, 12 smoking adjusting studies) for CHD/IHD, 0.95 (95 % CI 0.70–1.29, 6 studies) for stroke, and 1.03 (95 % CI 0.97–1.10, 10 studies) for all cancers. This meta-analysis provides quantitative evidence that coffee intake is inversely related to all cause and, probably, CVD mortality.

Keywords

Coffee All cause mortality All cancers mortality Cardiovascular disease mortality Meta-analysis Prospective studies 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Italian Association for Cancer Research (AIRC), Milan, Italy, Project No. 10068. SM and FT were supported by a fellowship from the Italian Foundation for Cancer Research (FIRC).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest. All authors have completed the Unified Competing Interest form at www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf (available on request from the corresponding author) and declare: no financial relationships or activities with any organizations that might have an interest with the submitted work in the previous 3 years, no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.

Supplementary material

10654_2013_9834_MOESM1_ESM.docx (52 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 52 kb)
10654_2013_9834_MOESM2_ESM.doc (64 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 64 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Ferruzzi MG. The influence of beverage composition on delivery of phenolic compounds from coffee and tea. Physiol Behav. 2010;100(1):33–41. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2010.01.035.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Huxley R, Lee CM, Barzi F, et al. Coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption in relation to incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(22):2053–63. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2009.439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Larsson SC, Orsini N. Coffee consumption and risk of stroke: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Epidemiol. 2011;174(9):993–1001. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwr226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bravi F, Bosetti C, Tavani A, et al. Coffee drinking and hepatocellular carcinoma risk: a meta-analysis. Hepatology. 2007;46(2):430–5. doi: 10.1002/hep.21708.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bravi F, Scotti L, Bosetti C, et al. Coffee drinking and endometrial cancer risk: a metaanalysis of observational studies. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;200(2):130–5. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2008.10.032.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Je Y, Liu W, Giovannucci E. Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Int J Cancer. 2009;124(7):1662–8. doi: 10.1002/ijc.24124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Galeone C, Tavani A, Pelucchi C, et al. Coffee and tea intake and risk of head and neck cancer: pooled analysis in the international head and neck cancer epidemiology consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19(7):1723–36. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Turati F, Galeone C, La Vecchia C, Garavello W, Tavani A. Coffee and cancers of the upper digestive and respiratory tracts: meta-analyses of observational studies. Ann Oncol. 2011;22(3):536–44. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdq603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dawber TR, Kannel WB, Gordon T. Coffee and cardiovascular disease. Observations from the framingham study. N Engl J Med. 1974;291(17):871–4. doi: 10.1056/NEJM197410242911703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Heyden S, Tyroler HA, Heiss G, Hames CG, Bartel A. Coffee consumption and mortality. Total mortality, stroke mortality, and coronary heart disease mortality. Arch Intern Med. 1978;138(10):1472–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Murray SS, Bjelke E, Gibson RW, Schuman LM. Coffee consumption and mortality from ischemic heart disease and other causes: results from the Lutheran Brotherhood study, 1966-1978. Am J Epidemiol. 1981;113(6):661–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jacobsen BK, Bjelke E, Kvale G, Heuch I. Coffee drinking, mortality, and cancer incidence: results from a Norwegian prospective study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1986;76(5):823–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vandenbroucke JP, Kok FJ, van ‘t Bosch G, van den Dungen PJ, van der Heide-Wessel C, van der Heide RM. Coffee drinking and mortality in a 25-year follow up. Am J Epidemiol. 1986;123(2):359–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    LeGrady D, Dyer AR, Shekelle RB, et al. Coffee consumption and mortality in the Chicago Western Electric Company Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1987;126(5):803–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rosengren A, Wilhelmsen L. Coffee, coronary heart disease and mortality in middle-aged Swedish men: findings from the Primary Prevention Study. J Intern Med. 1991;230(1):67–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lindsted KD, Kuzma JW, Anderson JL. Coffee consumption and cause-specific mortality. Association with age at death and compression of mortality. J Clin Epidemiol. 1992;45(7):733–42. doi: 10.1016/0895-4356(92)90051-N.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Klatsky AL, Armstrong MA, Friedman GD. Coffee, tea, and mortality. Ann Epidemiol. 1993;3(4):375–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Woodward M, Tunstall-Pedoe H. Coffee and tea consumption in the Scottish Heart Health Study follow up: conflicting relations with coronary risk factors, coronary disease, and all cause mortality. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1999;53(8):481–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kleemola P, Jousilahti P, Pietinen P, Vartiainen E, Tuomilehto J. Coffee consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease and death. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(22):3393–400. doi: 10.1001/archinte.160.22.3393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Iwai N, Ohshiro H, Kurozawa Y, et al. Relationship between coffee and green tea consumption and all-cause mortality in a cohort of a rural Japanese population. J Epidemiol. 2002;12(3):191–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jazbec A, Simic D, Corovic N, Durakovic Z, Pavlovic M. Impact of coffee and other selected factors on general mortality and mortality due to cardiovascular disease in Croatia. J Health Popul Nutr. 2003;21(4):332–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Andersen LF, Jacobs DR Jr, Carlsen MH, Blomhoff R. Consumption of coffee is associated with reduced risk of death attributed to inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases in the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(5):1039–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Iso H, Kubota Y. Nutrition and disease in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer (JACC). Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2007;8(Suppl):35–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Paganini-Hill A, Kawas CH, Corrada MM. Non-alcoholic beverage and caffeine consumption and mortality: the Leisure World Cohort Study. Prev Med. 2007;44(4):305–10. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2006.12.011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Happonen P, Laara E, Hiltunen L, Luukinen H. Coffee consumption and mortality in a 14-year follow-up of an elderly northern Finnish population. Br J Nutr. 2008;99(6):1354–61. doi: 10.1017/S0007114507871650.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Laaksonen M, Talala K, Martelin T, et al. Health behaviours as explanations for educational level differences in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality: a follow-up of 60 000 men and women over 23 years. Eur J Public Health. 2008;18(1):38–43. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckm051.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lopez-Garcia E, van Dam RM, Li TY, Rodriguez-Artalejo F, Hu FB. The relationship of coffee consumption with mortality. Ann Intern Med. 2008;148(12):904–14. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-148-12-200806170-00003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ahmed HN, Levitan EB, Wolk A, Mittleman MA. Coffee consumption and risk of heart failure in men: an analysis from the Cohort of Swedish Men. Am Heart J. 2009;158(4):667–72. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2009.07.006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    de Koning Gans JM, Uiterwaal CS, van der Schouw YT, et al. Tea and coffee consumption and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30(8):1665–71. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.109.201939.
  30. 30.
    Sugiyama K, Kuriyama S, Akhter M, et al. Coffee consumption and mortality due to all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in Japanese women. J Nutr. 2010;140(5):1007–13. doi: 10.3945/jn.109.109314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tamakoshi A, Lin Y, Kawado M, Yagyu K, Kikuchi S, Iso H. Effect of coffee consumption on all-cause and total cancer mortality: findings from the JACC study. Eur J Epidemiol. 2011;26(4):285–93. doi: 10.1007/s10654-011-9548-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Freedman ND, Park Y, Abnet CC, Hollenbeck AR, Sinha R. Association of coffee drinking with total and cause-specific mortality. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(20):1891–904. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1112010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nilsson LM, Winkvist A, Brustad M, et al. A traditional Sami diet score as a determinant of mortality in a general northern Swedish population. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71:1–12. doi: 10.3402/ijch.v71i0.18537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Heyden S, Heyden F, Heiss G, Hames CG. Smoking and coffee consumption in three groups: cancer deaths, cardiovascular deaths and living controls. A prospective study in Evans County, Georgia. J Chronic Dis. 1979;32(9–10):673–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tverdal A, Stensvold I, Solvoll K, Foss OP, Lund-Larsen P, Bjartveit K. Coffee consumption and death from coronary heart disease in middle aged Norwegian men and women. BMJ. 1990;300(6724):566–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Stensvold I, Tverdal A, Jacobsen BK. Cohort study of coffee intake and death from coronary heart disease over 12 years. BMJ. 1996;312(7030):544–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hart C, Smith GD. Coffee consumption and coronary heart disease mortality in Scottish men: a 21 year follow up study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1997;51(4):461–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Greenberg JA, Chow G, Ziegelstein RC. Caffeinated coffee consumption, cardiovascular disease, and heart valve disease in the elderly (from the Framingham Study). Am J Cardiol. 2008;102(11):1502–8. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.07.046.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Leurs LJ, Schouten LJ, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA. Total fluid and specific beverage intake and mortality due to IHD and stroke in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Br J Nutr. 2010;104(8):1212–21. doi: 10.1017/S0007114510001923.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mineharu Y, Koizumi A, Wada Y, et al. Coffee, green tea, black tea and oolong tea consumption and risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease in Japanese men and women. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2011;65(3):230–40. doi: 10.1136/jech.2009.097311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Khan MM, Goto R, Kobayashi K, et al. Dietary habits and cancer mortality among middle aged and older Japanese living in hokkaido, Japan by cancer site and sex. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2004;5(1):58–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Stroup DF, Berlin JA, Morton SC, et al. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) group. JAMA. 2000;283(15):2008–12. doi: 10.1001/jama.283.15.2008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Greenberg JA, Dunbar CC, Schnoll R, Kokolis R, Kokolis S, Kassotis J. Caffeinated beverage intake and the risk of heart disease mortality in the elderly: a prospective analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(2):392–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Paganini-Hill A. Lifestyle practices and cardiovascular disease mortality in the elderly: the leisure world cohort study. Cardiol Res Pract. 2011;2011:983764. doi: 10.4061/2011/983764.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Heyden S, Tyroler HA, Cassel JC, Hames CG, Becker C, Heiss G. Coffee consumption and mortality in a community study–Evans Co., Ga. Z Ernahrungswiss. 1976;15(2):143–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Snowdon DA, Phillips RL. Coffee consumption and risk of fatal cancers. Am J Public Health. 1984;74(8):820–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fortes C, Forastiere F, Farchi S, Rapiti E, Pastori G, Perucci CA. Diet and overall survival in a cohort of very elderly people. Epidemiology. 2000;11(4):440–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Greenland S, Longnecker MP. Methods for trend estimation from summarized dose-response data, with applications to meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 1992;135(11):1301–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hamling J, Lee P, Weitkunat R, Ambuhl M. Facilitating meta-analyses by deriving relative effect and precision estimates for alternative comparisons from a set of estimates presented by exposure level or disease category. Stat Med. 2008;27(7):954–70. doi: 10.1002/sim.3013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Higgins JP, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ. 2003;327(7414):557–60. doi: 10.1136/bmj.327.7414.557.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Begg CB, Mazumdar M. Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Biometrics. 1994;50(4):1088–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ. 1997;315(7109):629–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Wu JN, Ho SC, Zhou C, et al. Coffee consumption and risk of coronary heart diseases: a meta-analysis of 21 prospective cohort studies. Int J Cardiol. 2009;137(3):216–25. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2008.06.051.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Larsson SC, Mannisto S, Virtanen MJ, Kontto J, Albanes D, Virtamo J. Coffee and tea consumption and risk of stroke subtypes in male smokers. Stroke. 2008;39(6):1681–7. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.504183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Larsson SC, Virtamo J, Wolk A. Coffee consumption and risk of stroke in women. Stroke. 2011;42(4):908–12. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.603787.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lopez-Garcia E, Rodriguez-Artalejo F, Rexrode KM, Logroscino G, Hu FB, van Dam RM. Coffee consumption and risk of stroke in women. Circulation. 2009;119(8):1116–23. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.826164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    James JE. Is habitual caffeine use a preventable cardiovascular risk factor? Lancet. 1997;349(9047):279–81. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(96)04253-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Zhang Z, Hu G, Caballero B, Appel L, Chen L. Habitual coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93(6):1212–9. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.110.004044.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mesas AE, Leon-Munoz LM, Rodriguez-Artalejo F, Lopez-Garcia E. The effect of coffee on blood pressure and cardiovascular disease in hypertensive individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94(4):1113–26. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.016667.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Thelle DS, Arnesen E, Forde OH. The Tromso heart study. Does coffee raise serum cholesterol? N Engl J Med. 1983;308(24):1454–7. doi: 10.1056/NEJM198306163082405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    D’Avanzo B, Santoro L, Nobill A, La Vecchia C. Coffee consumption and serum cholesterol. GISSI-EFRIM Study Group. Prev Med. 1993;22(2):219–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Jee SH, He J, Appel LJ, Whelton PK, Suh I, Klag MJ. Coffee consumption and serum lipids: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;153(4):353–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cai L, Ma D, Zhang Y, Liu Z, Wang P. The effect of coffee consumption on serum lipids: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66(8):872–7. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Zhang W, Lopez-Garcia E, Li TY, Hu FB, van Dam RM. Coffee consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality among men with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(6):1043–5. doi: 10.2337/dc08-2251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Zhang WL, Lopez-Garcia E, Li TY, Hu FB, van Dam RM. Coffee consumption and risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality among women with type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2009;52(5):810–7. doi: 10.1007/s00125-009-1311-1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Montagnana M, Favaloro EJ, Lippi G. Coffee intake and cardiovascular disease: virtue does not take center stage. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2012;38(2):164–77. doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1301414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Choi HK, Willett W, Curhan G. Coffee consumption and risk of incident gout in men: a prospective study. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56(6):2049–55. doi: 10.1002/art.22712.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Imatoh T, Tanihara S, Miyazaki M, Momose Y, Uryu Y, Une H. Coffee consumption but not green tea consumption is associated with adiponectin levels in Japanese males. Eur J Nutr. 2011;50(4):279–84. doi: 10.1007/s00394-010-0136-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kempf K, Herder C, Erlund I, et al. Effects of coffee consumption on subclinical inflammation and other risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(4):950–7. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.28548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mostofsky E, Rice MS, Levitan EB, Mittleman MA. Habitual coffee consumption and risk of heart failure: a dose-response meta-analysis. Circ Heart Fail. 2012;5(4):401–5. doi: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.112.967299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Pelchovitz DJ, Goldberger JJ. Caffeine and cardiac arrhythmias: a review of the evidence. Am J Med. 2011;124(4):284–9. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2010.10.017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Svilaas A, Sakhi AK, Andersen LF, et al. Intakes of antioxidants in coffee, wine, and vegetables are correlated with plasma carotenoids in humans. J Nutr. 2004;134(3):562–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kawachi I, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Speizer FE. A prospective study of coffee drinking and suicide in women. Arch Intern Med. 1996;156(5):521–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Yu X, Bao Z, Zou J, Dong J. Coffee consumption and risk of cancers: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:96. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-11-96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Galeone C, Turati F, La Vecchia C, Tavani A. Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of case-control studies. Cancer Causes Control. 2010;21(11):1949–59. doi: 10.1007/s10552-010-9623-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Zhang X, Albanes D, Beeson WL, et al. Risk of colon cancer and coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened soft drink intake: pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010;102(11):771–83. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djq107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Viani R. The composition of coffee. In: Garattini S, editor. Caffeine, coffee, and health. New York: Raven Press; 1993. p. 17–41.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    D’Avanzo B, La Vecchia C, Katsouyanni K, Negri E, Trichopoulos D. An assessment, and reproducibility of food frequency data provided by hospital controls. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1997;6(3):288–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ferraroni M, Tavani A, Decarli A, et al. Reproducibility and validity of coffee and tea consumption in Italy. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58(4):674–80. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601864.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Cornelis MC, El-Sohemy A, Kabagambe EK, Campos H. Coffee, CYP1A2 genotype, and risk of myocardial infarction. JAMA. 2006;295(10):1135–41. doi: 10.1001/jama.295.10.1135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Istvan J, Matarazzo JD. Tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine use: a review of their interrelationships. Psychol Bull. 1984;95(2):301–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    IARC. Coffee, tea, mate, methylxanthines and methylglyoxal. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lyon, 27 February to 6 March 1990. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum. 1991;51:1–513.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefano Malerba
    • 1
    • 2
  • Federica Turati
    • 1
    • 3
  • Carlotta Galeone
    • 1
    • 4
  • Claudio Pelucchi
    • 1
  • Federica Verga
    • 5
  • Carlo La Vecchia
    • 1
    • 4
  • Alessandra Tavani
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EpidemiologyIRCCS, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”MilanItaly
  2. 2.Institute of HygieneUniversità Cattolica Del Sacro CuoreRomeItaly
  3. 3.Struttura Complessa di Statistica Medica, Biometria e BioinformaticaFondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale TumoriMilanItaly
  4. 4.Department of Clinical Sciences and Community HealthUniversity of MilanMilanItaly
  5. 5.Section of Occupational Medicine, Department of Public Health and PediatricsUniversity of TorinoTurinItaly

Personalised recommendations