European Journal of Epidemiology

, Volume 27, Issue 8, pp 657–665

Risk of type 2 diabetes among HIV-infected and healthy subjects in Italy

  • Laura Galli
  • Stefania Salpietro
  • Gabriele Pellicciotta
  • Alberto Galliani
  • Piermarco Piatti
  • Hamid Hasson
  • Monica Guffanti
  • Nicola Gianotti
  • Alba Bigoloni
  • Adriano Lazzarin
  • Antonella Castagna


Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a growing problem in HIV population and a comparison with the general population may help screening and prevention. In this cross-sectional study the authors determined the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in 4,249 HIV-infected subjects attending the San Raffaele Infectious Diseases Department compared with 9,148 healthy controls recruited in 15 Italian regions, and identified risk factors associated with of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was defined as reported diabetes, a fasting plasma glucose concentration ≥7.0 mmol/l, or current use of anti-diabetic medication. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was higher in HIV-infected than healthy subjects (4.1 vs. 2.5 %; P < 0.0001). At multivariable analysis, HIV-infected subjects (odds ratio 1.70, 95 % CI, 1.12–2.51; P = 0.009), older age (P < 0.0001), higher BMI (P < 0.0001) and hypertension (P = 0.039) were associated with a higher risk of diabetes. Among HIV-infected patients, the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus increased with older age (P < 0.0001), higher BMI (P = 0.003), higher triglycerides (P = 0.015) lower total cholesterol (P = 0.008), longer duration of HIV infection (P = 0.036) lower nadir CD4 (P = 0.027). Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in HIV-infected subjects was almost two-fold increased than healthy subjects and it was associated with the typical risk factors of the general population and also to longer duration of HIV infection and lower nadir CD4.


Healthy HIV-negative controls HIV Prevalence of type 2 diabetes Risk factors 



Type 2 diabetes mellitus


Body mass index


Combination antiretroviral therapy


Fusion inhibitor


Integrase inhibitor


Protease inhibitor


Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor


Odds ratio


Confidence interval


Interquartile range


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura Galli
    • 1
  • Stefania Salpietro
    • 1
  • Gabriele Pellicciotta
    • 2
  • Alberto Galliani
    • 2
  • Piermarco Piatti
    • 3
  • Hamid Hasson
    • 1
  • Monica Guffanti
    • 1
  • Nicola Gianotti
    • 1
  • Alba Bigoloni
    • 1
  • Adriano Lazzarin
    • 1
    • 4
  • Antonella Castagna
    • 1
  1. 1.Infectious DiseasesSan Raffaele Scientific InstituteMilanItaly
  2. 2.Occupational HealthH. San Raffaele Resnati S.p.a.MilanItaly
  3. 3.Cardiometabolic and Clinical Trials Unit, Metabolic and Cardiovascular Division, Internal Medicine DepartmentSan Raffaele Scientific InstituteMilanItaly
  4. 4.University Vita-Salute San RaffaeleMilanItaly

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