European Journal of Epidemiology

, 26:689

Challenges for epidemiologic research on the verge of a new era

  • Shilu Tong
  • Rachel E. Neale
  • Xiaoming Shen
  • Jørn Olsen

DOI: 10.1007/s10654-011-9615-0

Cite this article as:
Tong, S., Neale, R.E., Shen, X. et al. Eur J Epidemiol (2011) 26: 689. doi:10.1007/s10654-011-9615-0


Although risk factor epidemiology has achieved much, it has its limitations (e.g., a failure to reveal causal mechanisms at multiple levels). To illustrate contemporary challenges for epidemiological research, we present a dialog with examples and argue for incorporating a “systems thinking through a life course” paradigm in epidemiological research. There is an increasing interest in moving part of public health from a discipline concerned primarily with risk factors at the individual level toward one concerned with complex causal patterns which often operate across different levels in time and space (e.g., from the molecular to the population, from the past to the future, and from the distal to the proximal). However, the methodology for discovering these complex and dynamic relationships remains to be improved. We propose strategies for taking up this challenge.


Epidemiologic research Epigenetic Etiology Global epidemiology Systems thinking 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shilu Tong
    • 1
  • Rachel E. Neale
    • 2
  • Xiaoming Shen
    • 3
  • Jørn Olsen
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Biomedical InnovationQueensland University of TechnologyBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Cancer and Population Studies GroupQueensland Institute of Medical ResearchBrisbaneAustralia
  3. 3.Shanghai Key Laboratory of Children’s Environmental HealthShanghai Jiaotong University School of MedicineShanghaiChina
  4. 4.Department of Epidemiology, School of Public HealthAarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark
  5. 5.University of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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