European Journal of Epidemiology

, Volume 25, Issue 8, pp 581–592 | Cite as

Influence of short-term exposure to ultrafine and fine particles on systemic inflammation

  • Sabine Hertel
  • Anja Viehmann
  • Susanne Moebus
  • Klaus Mann
  • Martina Bröcker-Preuss
  • Stefan Möhlenkamp
  • Michael Nonnemacher
  • Raimund Erbel
  • Hermann Jakobs
  • Michael Memmesheimer
  • Karl-Heinz Jöckel
  • Barbara Hoffmann
ENVIRONMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY

Abstract

Daily to monthly variations in fine particulate matter have been linked to systemic inflammatory responses. It has been hypothesized that smaller particles resulting from combustion processes confer higher toxicity. We aim to analyze the association between short-term exposure to ultrafine and fine particles and systemic inflammation. We use baseline data (2000–2003) of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, a population-based cohort study of 4,814 participants in the Ruhr Area in Germany. A chemistry transport model was applied to model daily surface concentrations of particulate air pollutants on a grid of 1 km2. Exposure included particle number (PN) and particulate matter mass concentration with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ≤10 μm (PM10). Generalized additive models were used to explore the relation of air pollutants using single day lags and averaging times of up to 28 days with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). We adjusted for meteorology, season, time trend, and personal characteristics. Median hs-CRP level in the 3,999 included participants was 1.5 mg/l. Median daily concentration of PN was 8,414 × 104/ml (IQR 4,580 × 104/ml), of PM2.5 14.5 μg/m³ (IQR 11.5 μg/m³) and of PM10 18.5 μg/m³ (IQR 13.9 μg/m³). A positive association between PN and hs-CRP could be observed only for single day lags and for averaged PN concentrations with higher estimates for longer averaging times. The highest hs-CRP-increase of 7.1% (95%-CI: 1.9, 12.6%) was found for the 21-day average. These results support the hypothesis that short-term exposure to traffic-related particles might lead to detrimental cardiovascular health effects via an inflammatory mechanism.

Keywords

Air pollution Particulate matter Inflammation Cardiovascular disease 

References

  1. 1.
    Brook RD. Cardiovascular effects of air pollution. Clin Sci (Lond). 2008;115(6):175–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Donaldson K, Stone V, Seaton A, MacNee W. Ambient particle inhalation and the cardiovascular system: potential mechanisms. Environ Health Perspect. 2001;109:523–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schwartz J. Air pollution and blood markers of cardiovascular risk. Environ Health Perspect. 2001;109(Suppl 3):405–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Delfino RJ, Staimer N, Tjoa T, Gillen DL, Polidori A, Arhami M, Kleinman MT, Vaziri ND, Longhurst J, Sioutas C. Air pollution exposures and circulating biomarkers of effect in a susceptible population: clues to potential causal component mixtures and mechanisms. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117(8):1232–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Diez Roux AV, Auchincloss AH, Astor B, Barr RG, Cushman M, Dvonch T, et al. Recent exposure to particulate matter and C-reactive protein concentration in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Am J Epidemiol. 2006;164(5):437–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Steinvil A, Kordova-Biezuner L, Shapira I, Berliner S, Rogowski O. Short-term exposure to air pollution and inflammation-sensitive biomarkers. Environ Res. 2008;106(1):51–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rückerl R, Ibald-Mulli A, Koenig W, Schneider A, Woelke G, Cyrys J, et al. Air pollution and markers of inflammation and coagulation in patients with coronary heart disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;173(4):432–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zeka A, Sullivan JR, Vokonas PS, Sparrow D, Schwartz J. Inflammatory markers and particulate air pollution: characterizing the pathway to disease. Int J Epidemiol. 2006;35(5):1347–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Diez Roux AV, Auchincloss AH, Franklin TG, Raghunathan T, Barr RG, Kaufman J, et al. Long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter and prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;167(6):667–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hoffmann B, Moebus S, Dragano N, Stang A, Möhlenkamp S, Schmermund A, Memmesheimer M, Bröcker-Preuss M, Mann K, Erbel R, Jöckel KH. Chronic residential exposure to particulate matter air pollution and systemic inflammatory markers. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117(8):1302–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Forbes LJ, Patel MD, Rudnicka AR, Cook DG, Bush T, Stedman JR, Whincup PH, Strachan DP, Anderson RH. Chronic exposure to outdoor air pollution and markers of systemic inflammation. Epidemiology. 2009;20(2):245–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Delfino RJ, Sioutas C, Malik S. Potential role of ultrafine particles in associations between airborne particle mass and cardiovascular health. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113(8):934–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rückerl R, Phipps RP, Schneider A, Frampton M, Cyrys J, Oberdörster G, et al. Ultrafine particles and platelet activation in patients with coronary heart disease—results from a prospective panel study. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2007;4:1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nemmar A, Al-Salam S, Zia S, Dhanasekaran S, Shudadevi M, Ali BH. Time-course effects of systemically administered diesel exhaust particles in rats. Toxicol Lett. 2010;194(3):58–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ridker PM, Silvertown JD. Inflammation, C-reactive protein, and atherothrombosis. J Periodontol. 2008;79(8 Suppl):1544–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schmermund A, Möhlenkamp S, Stang A, Grönemeyer D, Seibel R, Hirche H, et al. Assessment of clinically silent atherosclerotic disease and established and novel risk factors for predicting myocardial infarction and cardiac death in healthy middle-aged subjects: rationale and design of the Heinz Nixdorf RECALL Study. Am Heart J. 2002;144(2):212–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ebel A, Memmesheimer M, Jakobs HJ, Feldmann H. Advanced air pollution models and their application to risk and impact assessment, 83-92. Air, water and soil quality modelling for risk and impact assessment. Netherlands: Springer; 2007.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Schell B, Ackermann IJ, Hass H, Binkowski FS, Ebel A. Modeling the formation of secondary organic aerosol within a comprehensive air quality model system. J Geophys Res. 2001;106(D22):275–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hastie TJ, Tibshirani RJ. Generalized additive models. London: Chapman and Hall; 2007.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wood SN. mgcv: GAMs and generalized ridge regression for R. R News. 2001;1:20–5.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    R Development Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria; 2009.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Panasevich S, Leander K, Rosenlund M, Ljungman P, Bellander T, de Faire U, Pershagen G, Nyberg F. Associations of long- and short-term air pollution exposure with markers of inflammation and coagulation in a population sample. Occup Environ Med. 2009;66(11):747–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bellander T, Berglind N, Gustavsson P, Jonson T, Nyberg F, Pershagen G, Järup L. Using geographic information systems to assess individual historical exposure to air pollution from traffic and house heating in Stockholm. Environ Health Perspect. 2001;109(6):633–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Delfino RJ, Staimer N, Tjoa T, Polidori A, Arhami M, Gillen DL, Kleinman MT, Vaziri ND, Longhurst J, Zaldivar F, Sioutas C. Circulating biomarkers of inflammation, antioxidant activity, and platelet activation are associated with primary combustion aerosols in subjects with coronary artery disease. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116(7):898–906.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dubowsky SD, Suh H, Schwartz J, Coull BA, Gold DR. Diabetes, obesity, and hypertension may enhance associations between air pollution and markers of systemic inflammation. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114(7):992–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Seaton A, Soutar A, Crawford V, Elton R, McNerlan S, Cherrie J, et al. Particulate air pollution and the blood. Thorax. 1999;54(11):1027–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zhu Y, Hinds WC, Kim S, Sioutas C. Concentration and size distribution of ultrafine particles near a major highway. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2002;52(9):1032–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kuhlbusch TA, Neumann S, Fissan H. Number size distribution, mass concentration, and particle composition of PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 in bag filling areas of carbon black production. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2004;1(10):660–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Erbel R, Möhlenkamp S, Lehmann N, Schmermund A, Moebus S, Stang A, Grönemeyer D, Seibel R, Mann K, Volbracht L, Dragano N, Siegrist J, Jöckel KH. Sex related cardiovascular risk stratification based on quantification of atherosclerosis and inflammation. Atherosclerosis. 2008;197:662–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sabine Hertel
    • 1
    • 5
  • Anja Viehmann
    • 1
  • Susanne Moebus
    • 1
  • Klaus Mann
    • 4
  • Martina Bröcker-Preuss
    • 4
  • Stefan Möhlenkamp
    • 3
  • Michael Nonnemacher
    • 1
  • Raimund Erbel
    • 3
  • Hermann Jakobs
    • 2
  • Michael Memmesheimer
    • 2
  • Karl-Heinz Jöckel
    • 1
  • Barbara Hoffmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and EpidemiologyUniversity Hospital of EssenEssenGermany
  2. 2.Rhenish Institute for Environmental Research at the University of CologneCologneGermany
  3. 3.West German Heart Centre of EssenUniversity Duisburg- EssenDuisburg, EssenGermany
  4. 4.Department of Endocrinology and Division of Laboratory ResearchUniversity Hospital of EssenEssenGermany
  5. 5.University of Duisburg-EssenDuisburg, EssenGermany

Personalised recommendations