European Journal of Epidemiology

, Volume 22, Issue 12, pp 925–936

Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in HIV-1 infected pregnant women in Europe

  • Megan Landes
  • Claire Thorne
  • Patricia Barlow
  • Simona Fiore
  • Ruslan Malyuta
  • Pasquale Martinelli
  • Svetlana Posokhova
  • Valeria Savasi
  • Igor Semenenko
  • Andrej Stelmah
  • Cecilia Tibaldi
  • Marie-Louise Newell
Infectious Diseases


We investigated prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a cohort of HIV-1-infected pregnant women and described factors associated with STI diagnosis, as a nested study within the European Collaborative Study (ECS). The ECS is a cohort study in which HIV-infected pregnant women are enrolled and their children followed from birth, according to standard clinical and laboratory protocols. Information on STIs diagnosed during pregnancy was collected retrospectively from the antenatal records of women enrolling between January 1999 and October 2005; other variables were obtained from the ECS prospective database. A total of 1,050 women were included: 530 in Western Europe and 520 in Ukraine. Syphilis was the most common bacterial STI (2% prevalence, 95% CI 1.2–3.0). Prevalence of HPV-related genital lesions was 8.6% (95%CI 6.9–10.4) and prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis was 12.1% (95%CI 10.2–14.2). Women in Ukraine (AOR 10.7, 95%CI 3.7–30.5), single women (AOR 3.9, 95%CI 1.2–12.7), sexual partners of injecting drug users (AOR 3.8, 95%CI 1.4–10.4) and women with CD4 counts <200 cells/mm3 (AOR 5.4, 95%CI 1.0–28.1) were at increased risk of diagnosis with Chlamydia trachomatis, syphilis or Trichomonas vaginalis. African origin (AOR 1.9, 95%CI 1.1–3.3) and CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 (AOR 3.4, 95%CI 1.5–7.8) were associated with HSV-2 and/or HPV-related genital lesions. Antenatal screening should be considered an effective tool for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of further transmission of STIs. HIV-infected women should receive adequate screening for STIs during pregnancy together with appropriate counseling and follow-up for treatment and prevention.


Antenatal Human immunodeficiency virus Prevalence Risk factors Sexually transmitted infection 



Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


Confidence interval


European Collaborative Study


Highly active antiretroviral therapy


Human immunodeficiency virus


Human papillomavirus


Herpes simplex virus 2


Injecting drug use


Mother-to-child transmission


Sexually transmitted infections

Supplementary material

10654_2007_9188_MOESM1_ESM.doc (26 kb)
Supplementary material


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Megan Landes
    • 1
  • Claire Thorne
    • 2
  • Patricia Barlow
    • 3
  • Simona Fiore
    • 2
    • 4
  • Ruslan Malyuta
    • 5
  • Pasquale Martinelli
    • 6
  • Svetlana Posokhova
    • 7
  • Valeria Savasi
    • 4
  • Igor Semenenko
    • 5
  • Andrej Stelmah
    • 8
  • Cecilia Tibaldi
    • 9
  • Marie-Louise Newell
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Family and Community MedicineUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child HealthUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyHospital St PierreBrusselsBelgium
  4. 4.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital L.SaccoUniversity of MilanMilanItaly
  5. 5.Prevention of Perinatal AIDS InitiativeOdessaUkraine
  6. 6.Department of Gynecology and ObstetricsUniversity of Naples, Federico IINaplesItaly
  7. 7.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyOdessa Regional HospitalOdessaUkraine
  8. 8.AIDS Centre of CrimeaSimferopolUkraine
  9. 9.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyHospital S AnnaTurinItaly

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