European Journal of Epidemiology

, Volume 20, Issue 11, pp 929–937 | Cite as

Seasonal Variations in Mood and Behaviour Associated with Gender, Annual Income and Education: The Hordaland Health Study

  • Nicolas M. F. Øyane
  • Fred Holsten
  • Reidun Ursin
  • Bjørn Bjorvatn
Psychiatric Diseases

Abstract

Objective: To explore the relationship between demographic factors and seasonal changes in mood and behaviour. Method: A health survey was conducted among 40–45 year old inhabitants in Hordaland County, Norway. The Global Seasonality Score, investigating seasonal symptoms, was given to 4299 men and 9983 women. Response rates among those receiving the questionnaire were 79.8% for men (n=3432) and 81.2% for women (n=8223). Results: High seasonality was reported by 18.4% of men and 22.2% of women. Female gender, low educational level, high level of affective symptomatology and low household income correlated with high seasonality. Among men, being single was also a determinant factor for high seasonality. Reported seasonality also depended on which month the questionnaire was filled in. Conclusions: In this study, high seasonality was most prevalent among females, being single, having a low annual income and a low education level. The latter two findings are different from expectations which could be drawn from previous studies suggesting an opposite association.

Keywords

Chronobiology Cross sectional study Demography Seasonality Seasonal affective disorder 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Magnusson A. Historical excerpts. In: Partonen T (ed), Seasonal affective disorder: Practice and research. Oxford university press, Helsinki and Oslo, 2001: 3–10Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rosenthal, NE, Sack, DA, Gillin, JC,  et al. 1984Seasonal affective disorder: a description of the syndrome and preliminary findings with light therapyArch Gen Psychiat417280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kasper, S, Wehr, TA, Bertko, JJ, Gaisr, PA, Rosenthal, NE 1989Epidemiological findings of seasonal changes in mood and behaviorArch Gen Psychiat46823833PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lingjaerde, O, Reichborn-Kjennerud, T 1993Characteristics of winter depression in the Oslo area (60 degrees N)Acta Psychiatr Scand8811120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dam, H, Jakobsen, K, Mellerup, E 1998Prevalence of winter depression in DenmarkActa Psychiatr Scand9714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hardin, TA, Wehr, TA, Brewerton, T,  et al. 1991Evaluation of seasonality in six clinical populations and two normal populationsJ Psychiat Res257587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mersch, PPA, Middeltorp, HM, Bouhuys, AL, Beersma, DGM, Hoofdakker, RH 1999The prevalence of seasonal affective disorder in The Netherlands: a prospective and retrospective study of seasonal mood variation in the general populationBiol Psychiat4510131022PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Elbi, H, Noyan, A, Korukoglu, S,  et al. 2002Seasonal affective disorder in eight goups in Turkey: a cross-national perspectiveJ Affect Disorders707784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rosen, LN, Targum, SD, Terman, M,  et al. 1990Prevalence of seasonal affective disorder at four latitudesPsychiat Res31131144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Saarijärvi, S, Lauerma, H, Helenius, H, Saarilehto, S 1999Seasonal affective disorders among rural Finns, LappsActa Psychiatrica Scandinavia9995101Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Eagles, JM, Andrew, JE, Wileman, SM, Howie, FL, Cameron, IM, Naji, SA 2002Seasonal affective disorder and social deprivation in AberdeenJ Affect Disorders70337340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Blazer, DG, Kessler, RC, Swartz, MS 1998Epidemiology of recurrent major and minor depression with a seasonal pattern. The National Comorbidity SurveyBr J Psychiatry172164167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Palinkas, LA, Cravalho, M, Browner, D 1995Seasonal variation of depressive symptoms in AntarcticaActa Psychiatrica Scandinavia91423429Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hope, S, Rodgers, B, Power, C 1999Marital status transitions and psychological distress: longitudinal evidence from a national population samplePsychol Med29381389CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Magnusson, A 1996Validation of the seasonal pattern assessment questionnaire (SPAQ)J Affect Disorders40121129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Thompson, C, Stinson, D, Fernandez, M, Fine, J, Issacs, G 1988A comparison of normal, bipolar and seasonal affective disorder subjects using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment QuestionnaireJ Affect Disorders14257264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Booker, JM, Hellekson, CJ 1992Prevalence of seasonal affective disorder in AlaskaAm J Psychiatry14911761182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Søgaard, A, Bjelland, I, Tell, GS, Røysamb, E 2003A comparison of the CONOR Mental Health Index to the HSCL-10 and HADSNorsk Epidemiologi13279284Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Magnusson, A, Stefansson, JG 1993Prevalence of seasonal affective disorder in IcelandArch Gen Psychiat50941946PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Garvey, MJ, Wesner, R, Godes, M 1988Comparison of seasonal and nonseasonal affective-disordersAm J Psychiat145100102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Reichborn-Kjennerud, T, Lingjaerde, O, Dahl, AA 1997DSM-III-R personality disorders in seasonal affective disorder: Change associated with depressionCompr Psychiat384348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Levitt, AJ, Joffe, RT, Brecher, D, Macdonald, C 1993Anxiety disorders and anxiety symptoms in a clinic sample of seasonal and nonseasonal depressivesJ Affect Disorders285156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Broman JE, Hetta J. Prevalence of seasonal affective disorders and related symptoms at two latitudes in Sweden Society for Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms 1998; 228:162 (Abstracts)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lund, E, Hansen, V 2001Responses to the Seasonal pattern assessment questionnaire in different seasonsAm J Psychiat158316318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Christensen, EM, Larsen, JK, Gjerris, A 2003The stability of the Seasonal pattern assessment questionnaire score index over time and the validity compared to classification according to DSM-III-RJ Affect Disorders74167172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Magnusson, A, Friis, S, Opjordsmoen, S 1997Internal consistency of the seasonal pattern assessment questionnaire (SPAQ)J Affect Disorders423548Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hansen, V, Jacobsen, BK, Arnesen, E 2001Prevalence of serious psychiatric morbidity in attenders and nonattenders to a health survey of a general population: the Tromso Health StudyAm J Epidemiol154891894CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Magnusson, A 2000An overview of epidemiological studies on seasonal affective disorderActa Psychiatr Scand101176184CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicolas M. F. Øyane
    • 1
  • Fred Holsten
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
  • Reidun Ursin
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Bjørn Bjorvatn
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Public Health and Primary Health CareUniversity of BergenNorway
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of BergenNorway
  3. 3.Department of BiomedicineUniversity of BergenNorway
  4. 4.Department of Locus on NeuroscienceUniversity of BergenNorway
  5. 5.Norwegian Competence Center for Sleep ResearchHaukeland University HospitalBergenNorway

Personalised recommendations