European Journal of Epidemiology

, Volume 20, Issue 11, pp 929–937 | Cite as

Seasonal Variations in Mood and Behaviour Associated with Gender, Annual Income and Education: The Hordaland Health Study

  • Nicolas M. F. ØyaneEmail author
  • Fred Holsten
  • Reidun Ursin
  • Bjørn Bjorvatn
Psychiatric Diseases


Objective: To explore the relationship between demographic factors and seasonal changes in mood and behaviour. Method: A health survey was conducted among 40–45 year old inhabitants in Hordaland County, Norway. The Global Seasonality Score, investigating seasonal symptoms, was given to 4299 men and 9983 women. Response rates among those receiving the questionnaire were 79.8% for men (n=3432) and 81.2% for women (n=8223). Results: High seasonality was reported by 18.4% of men and 22.2% of women. Female gender, low educational level, high level of affective symptomatology and low household income correlated with high seasonality. Among men, being single was also a determinant factor for high seasonality. Reported seasonality also depended on which month the questionnaire was filled in. Conclusions: In this study, high seasonality was most prevalent among females, being single, having a low annual income and a low education level. The latter two findings are different from expectations which could be drawn from previous studies suggesting an opposite association.


Chronobiology Cross sectional study Demography Seasonality Seasonal affective disorder 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicolas M. F. Øyane
    • 1
    Email author
  • Fred Holsten
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
  • Reidun Ursin
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Bjørn Bjorvatn
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Public Health and Primary Health CareUniversity of BergenNorway
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of BergenNorway
  3. 3.Department of BiomedicineUniversity of BergenNorway
  4. 4.Department of Locus on NeuroscienceUniversity of BergenNorway
  5. 5.Norwegian Competence Center for Sleep ResearchHaukeland University HospitalBergenNorway

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