European Journal of Epidemiology

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 183–199 | Cite as

Exposure to ambient air pollution and prenatal and early childhood health effects

  • Marina Lacasaña
  • Ana Esplugues
  • Ferran Ballester
Developmental Epidemiology


Over the last years, concern for the possible influence of exposure to air pollutants in children during gestation or the first years of life has grown; exposure levels which may be reached nowadays in our dwellings and in our streets. In the present study evidence over the possible impact of ambient air pollution on the foetus and the infants (i.e.: less than 1 year) published during the last decade, 1994–2003, are revised. Studies on infant mortality and exposure to particles show an outstanding consistence in the magnitude of the effects, despite the different designs used. As a whole, data show that an increase in 10 μg/m3of particle concentration (measured as PM10) is associated with to about 5% increase in post-neonatal mortality for all causes and around 22% for post-neonatal mortality for respiratory diseases. Regarding damage in foetal health, although results are not always consistent, most studies show associations with exposure to air pollution during pregnancy. However, the precise mechanisms of action of air pollutants on adverse reproductive results are still unknown, so is the period of exposure most relevant during pregnancy and the specific pollutant which may represent a higher risk. Follow-up studies evaluating personal exposure to different air pollutants are required, allowing for the adequate evaluation of the impact of each pollutant in different periods of pregnancy, as well as providing hypotheses on their possible mechanisms of action.


Ambient air pollution Congenital defects Intrauterine growth retardation Low birth weight Mortality Preterm delivery 



birth weight


confidence interval


carbon monoxide


interquartile range


intrauterine growth retardation


low birth weight


nitrogen oxides




polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons


polichlorinated biphenyls


particles ≤ 10 μm diameter


particles ≤ 2.5 μm diameter


total suspended particles


small for gestational age


sudden infant death syndrome


standardized mortality ratio


sulphur dioxide


weeks of pregnancy


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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marina Lacasaña
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ana Esplugues
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ferran Ballester
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Epidemiology and Statistics UnitValencian School of Studies for HealthValenciaSpain
  2. 2.University Hospital La FeValenciaSpain
  3. 3.Center for Environmental Health, Center for Research in Populational HealthNational Institute of Public HealthCuernavacaMexico
  4. 4.Public Health Department, History of Science and GynaecologyMiguel Hernández UniversityAlicanteSpain

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