European Journal of Epidemiology

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 79–88

Relationship among metabolizing genes, smoking and alcohol used as modifier factors on prostate cancer risk: Exploring some gene–gene and gene–environment interactions

  • Dante D. Cáceres L
  • Jeannette Iturrieta G
  • Cristian Acevedo C
  • Christian Huidobro A
  • Nelson Varela F
  • Luis Quiñones S
Genetic Epidemiology


Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common male cancers, but the burden of this disease shows remarkable worldwide variation. The role of susceptibility low penetrance genes and environmental factors in the etiology of (PCa) is unclear, but may involve, in some cases, multiple alleles at multiple loci and environmental factors. Study Objectives: To assess whether CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1 susceptibility genotypes, smoking status and alcohol consumption factors contribute to PCa risk, gene–gene and gene–environment interactions were analyzed. Design and Participants: We explored interactions on a multiplicative scale conducting a population-based case–control and a case–only study on 103 incident PCa patients and 132 unrelated controls. Main Results: The interaction odds ratios (IOR) for PCa risk were increased in men who had both susceptibility genotypes GST (M1; T1) null andCYP1A1-M1* in a case–control and case-only design (IORcc: 1.11; 95% CI: 0.12–10.02; IORcc: 6.23; 95%, CI: 0.51–75.89; IORco: 2.80; 95% CI: 0.44–17.45 and IORco: 2.65; 95%, CI: 0.30–25.40). No clear evidence for interaction on a multiplicative scale between smoking status, alcohol consumption and genetic polymorphisms in PCa risk was observed. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the interaction between genetic polymorphisms in GST (T1; M1) and CYP1A1-M1* would play a significant role as a modifying factor on PCa risk in Chilean people. However, these preliminary exploratory results should be confirmed in a larger study.


Case–control Case-only Gene–environment interaction Gene–gene interaction Prostate cancer 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dante D. Cáceres L
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jeannette Iturrieta G
    • 3
  • Cristian Acevedo C
    • 4
  • Christian Huidobro A
    • 4
  • Nelson Varela F
    • 3
  • Luis Quiñones S
    • 3
  1. 1.Environmental and Occupational Health Division, School of Public HealthUniversity of ChileSantiagoChile
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology, School of Public HealthUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillUSA
  3. 3.Laboratory of Chemical Carcinogenesis and Pharmacogenetics, Program of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, ICBM, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of ChileChile
  4. 4.National Cancer Corporation (CONAC)SantiagoChile

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