Advertisement

Review: mine tailings in an African tropical environment—mechanisms for the bioavailability of heavy metals in soils

  • Belinda K. Kaninga
  • Benson H. Chishala
  • Kakoma K. Maseka
  • Godfrey M. Sakala
  • Murray R. Lark
  • Andrew Tye
  • Michael J. WattsEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Heavy metals are of environmental significance due to their effect on human health and the ecosystem. One of the major exposure pathways of Heavy metals for humans is through food crops. It is postulated in the literature that when crops are grown in soils which have excessive concentrations of heavy metals, they may absorb elevated levels of these elements thereby endangering consumers. However, due to land scarcity, especially in urban areas of Africa, potentially contaminated land around industrial dumps such as tailings is cultivated with food crops. The lack of regulation for land-usage on or near to mine tailings has not helped this situation. Moreover, most countries in tropical Africa have not defined guideline values for heavy metals in soils for various land uses, and even where such limits exist, they are based on total soil concentrations. However, the risk of uptake of heavy metals by crops or any soil organisms is determined by the bioavailable portion and not the total soil concentration. Therefore, defining bioavailable levels of heavy metals becomes very important in HM risk assessment, but methods used must be specific for particular soil types depending on the dominant sorption phases. Geochemical speciation modelling has proved to be a valuable tool in risk assessment of heavy metal-contaminated soils. Among the notable ones is WHAM (Windermere Humic Aqueous Model). But just like most other geochemical models, it was developed and adapted on temperate soils, and because major controlling variables in soils such as SOM, temperature, redox potential and mineralogy differ between temperate and tropical soils, its predictions on tropical soils may be poor. Validation and adaptation of such models for tropical soils are thus imperative before such they can be used. The latest versions (VI and VII) of WHAM are among the few that consider binding to all major binding phases. WHAM VI and VII are assemblages of three sub-models which describe binding to organic matter, (hydr)oxides of Fe, Al and Mn and clays. They predict free ion concentration, total dissolved ion concentration and organic and inorganic metal ion complexes, in soils, which are all important components for bioavailability and leaching to groundwater ways. Both WHAM VI and VII have been applied in a good number of soils studies with reported promising results. However, all these studies have been on temperate soils and have not been tried on any typical tropical soils. Nonetheless, since WHAM VII considers binding to all major binding phases, including those which are dominant in tropical soils, it would be a valuable tool in risk assessment of heavy metals in tropical soils. A discussion of the contamination of soils with heavy metals, their subsequent bioavailability to crops that are grown in these soils and the methods used to determine various bioavailable phases of heavy metals are presented in this review, with an emphasis on prospective modelling techniques for tropical soils.

Keywords

Heavy metals Bioavailability Mine tailings Speciation WHAM Tropical soils 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors acknowledge the Royal Society-Department for International Development (DfID) for funding the work under the Project-AQ140000, “Strengthening African capacity in soil geochemistry for agriculture and health”.

References

  1. Adriano, D. C. (2001). Trace elements in terrestrial environments: Biogeochemistry, bioavailability and risks of metals (2nd ed., p. 867). New York: Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-21510-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amponsah-Dacosta, F. (2015). A field-scale performance evaluation of erosion control measures for slopes of mine tailings dams. In Presented at the 10th international conference on acid rock drainage and IMWA annual conference. Santiago: Gecamin.Google Scholar
  3. Angelova, V. R., Akova, V. I., Artinova, N. S., & Ivanov, K. I. (2013). The effect of organic amendments on soil chemical characteristics. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 19(5), 958–971.Google Scholar
  4. Angelova, V., Ivanova, R., Pevicharova, G., & Ivanov, K. (2010). Effect of organic amendments on heavy metals uptake by potato plants. In Soil solutions for a changing world. Presented at the 19th world congress of soil science (p. 5). Brisbane.Google Scholar
  5. Antwi-Agyei, P., Hogarh, J. N., & Foli, G. (2009). Trace elements contamination of soils around gold mine tailings dams at Obuasi, Ghana. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 3(11), 353–359.Google Scholar
  6. Appenroth, K.-J. (2010). Definition of “heavy metals” and their role in biological systems. In Soil heavy metals (pp. 19–29). Berlin: Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-02436-8_2.
  7. Ashraf, M. A., Maah, M. J., & Yusoff, I. (2012). Chemical speciation and potential mobility of heavy metals in the soil of former tin mining catchment. The Scientific World Journal.  https://doi.org/10.1100/2012/125608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Atkinson, N. R., Bailey, E. H., Tye, A. M., Breward, N., & Young, S. D. (2011). Fractionation of lead in soil by isotopic dilution and sequential extraction. Environmental Chemistry, 8(5), 493–500.  https://doi.org/10.1071/EN11020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. ATSDR. (2012). Toxicological profile for cadmium. In Agency for toxic substances and disease registry U.S. Atlanta: Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  10. Attanayake, C. P., Hettiarachchi, G. M., Harms, A., Presley, D., Martin, S., & Pierzynski, G. M. (2014). Field evaluations on soil plant transfer of lead from an urban garden soil. Journal of Environmental Quality, 43(2), 475–487.  https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2013.07.0273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ayoub, A. S., McGaw, B. A., Shand, C. A., & Midwood, A. J. (2003). Phytoavailability of Cd and Zn in soil estimated by stable isotope exchange and chemical extraction. Plant and Soil, 252(2), 291–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bade, R., Oh, S., & Shin, W. S. (2012). Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) for the prediction of bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soils to earthworm (Eisenia foetida) and oral bioavailable concentrations. Science of the Total Environment, 416, 127–136.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.11.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baeyens, W., Goeyens, L., Monteny, F., & Elskens, M. (1997). Effect of organic complexation on the behaviour of dissolved Cd, Cu and Zn in the Scheldt estuary. Hydrobiologia, 366(1), 81–90.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1003176327686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bakircioglu, D., Kurtulus, Y. B., & İbar, H. (2011). Comparison of extraction procedures for assessing soil metal bioavailability of to wheat grains. CLEAN–Soil, Air, Water, 39(8), 728–734.  https://doi.org/10.1002/clen.201000501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Beauchemin, D. (2017). Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry methods. In J. C. Lindon, G. E. Tranter, & D. W. Koppenaal (Eds.), Encyclopedia of spectroscopy and spectrometry (3rd ed., pp. 236–245). Oxford: Academic Press.  https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-409547-2.11222-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Benedetti, M. F., Riemsdijk, W. H. V., Gooddy, D. C., & Milne, C. J. (1996). Metal ion binding by natural organic matter: From the model to the field. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 60(14), 2503–2513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bennet, H. (Ed.). (1986). Concise chemical and technical dictionary, 4th enlarged, A. Edward (Ed.), London. In Third united nations conference on the law of the sea, 1973–82, documents of the conference, third session: The global environmental monitoring system of the united nations environment programme A/CONF.62/C.3/L.23* (vol. IV).Google Scholar
  18. Berggren, D. (1990). Speciation of Cadmium(II) using Donnan dialysis and differential-pulse anodic stripping voltammetry in a flow-injection system. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 41(3–4), 133–148.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03067319008027356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Blight, G. E. (1989). Erosion losses from the surfaces of gold-tailings dams. Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 89(1), 23–29. https://journals.co.za/content/saimm/89/1/AJA0038223X_1917. Accessed 27 July 2017.
  20. Blight, G. E., & Caldwell, J. A. (1984). The abatement of pollution from abandoned gold-residue dams. Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 84(1), 1–9. https://journals.co.za/content/saimm/84/1/AJA0038223X_1459. Accessed 23 April 2019.
  21. Bonten, L. T. C., Groenenberg, J. E., Weng, L., & van Riemsdijk, W. H. (2008). Use of speciation and complexation models to estimate heavy metal sorption in soils. Geoderma, 146(1), 303–310.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2008.06.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bradl, H. B. (2004). Adsorption of heavy metal ions on soils and soils constituents. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 277(1), 1–18.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2004.04.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Buekers, J. (2007). Fixation of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc in soil: kinetics, mechanisms and its effect on metal bioavailability. Unpubl Ph.D Thesis. Belgium: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.Google Scholar
  24. Buekers, J., Degryse, F., Maes, A., & Smolders, E. (2008). Modelling the effects of ageing on Cd, Zn, Ni and Cu solubility in soils using an assemblage model. European Journal of Soil Science, 59(6), 1160–1170.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.2008.01053.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Buol, S. W., & Eswaran, H. (1999). Oxisols. Advances in Agronomy, 68, 151–195.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2113(08)60845-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Burns, R. G. (1986). Interaction of enzymes with soil mineral and organic colloids. In P. M. Huang & M. Schnitzer (Eds.), Interactions of soil minerals with natural organics and microbes (Vol. 17, pp. 429–451). Madison: SSSA Special Publications p.Google Scholar
  27. Cancès, B., Ponthieu, M., Castrec-Rouelle, M., Aubry, E., & Benedetti, M. F. (2003). Metal ions speciation in a soil and its solution: Experimental data and model results. Geoderma, 113(3–4), 341–355.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7061(02)00369-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cataldo, D. A., Garland, T. R., Wildung, R. E., & Drucker, H. (1978). Nickel in plants: II. distribution and chemical form in soybean plants. Plant Physiology, 62(4), 566–570.  https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.62.4.566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Central Statistics Office, Zambia. (2013). Population and demographic projections 20112035 (2010 census of population and housing). Central Statistics Office.Google Scholar
  30. Chenery, S. R., Izquierdo, M., Marzouk, E., Klinck, B., Palumbo-Roe, B., & Tye, A. M. (2012). Soil–plant interactions and the uptake of Pb at abandoned mining sites in the Rookhope catchment of the N. Pennines, UK—a Pb isotope study. Science of the Total Environment, 433, 547–560.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.03.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chuan, M. C., Shu, G. Y., & Liu, J. C. (1996). Solubility of heavy metals in a contaminated soil: Effects of redox potential and pH. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 90(3–4), 543–556.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00282668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cobb, G. P., Sands, K., Waters, M., Wixson, B. G., & Dorward-King, E. (2000). Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine wastes. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 19(3), 600–607.  https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.5620190311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. D’Amore, J. J., Al-Abed, S. R., Scheckel, K. G., & Ryan, J. A. (2005). Methods for speciation of metals in soils. Journal of Environment Quality, 34(5), 1707.  https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2004.0014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. da Fonseca, A. F., Caires, E. F., & Barth, G. (2010). Extraction methods and availability of micronutrients for wheat under a no-till system with a surface application of lime. Scientia Agricola, 67(1), 60–70.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162010000100009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dai, Y., Nasir, M., Zhang, Y., Gao, J., Lv, Y., & Lv, J. (2018). Comparison of DGT with traditional extraction methods for assessing arsenic bioavailability to Brassica chinensis in different soils. Chemosphere, 191, 183–189.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.10.035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. De Lurdes Dinis, M., & Fiúza, A. (2011). Exposure assessment to heavy metals in the environment: Measures to eliminate or reduce the exposure to critical receptors. In L. I. Simeonov, M. V. Kochubovski, & B. G. Simeonova (Eds.), Environmental heavy metal pollution and effects on child mental development (pp. 27–50). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Degryse, F., Broos, K., Smolders, E., & Merckx, R. (2003). Soil solution concentration of Cd and Zn canbe predicted with a CaCl2 soil extract. European Journal of Soil Science, 54(1), 149–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Degryse, F., Shahbazi, A., Verheyen, L., & Smolders, E. (2012). Diffusion limitations in root uptake of cadmium and zinc, but not nickel, and resulting bias in the Michaelis constant. Plant Physiology.  https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.112.202200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Degryse, F., Smolders, E., & Parker, D. R. (2009). Partitioning of metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) in soils: Concepts, methodologies, prediction and applications–a review. European Journal of Soil Science, 60(4), 590–612. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2389.2009.01142.x/full. Accessed 16 Feb 2017.
  40. Dipu, S., Kumar, A. A., & Thanga, S. G. (2012). Effect of chelating agents in phytoremediation of heavy metals. Remediation Journal, 22(2), 133–146.  https://doi.org/10.1002/rem.21304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Domergue, F. L., & Vedy, J. C. (1992). Mobility of heavy metals in soil profiles. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 46(1), 13–23.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03067319208026993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dudal, Y., & Gérard, F. (2004). Accounting for natural organic matter in aqueous chemical equilibrium models: A review of the theories and applications. Earth-Science Reviews, 66(3–4), 199–216.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2004.01.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dudka, S., & Adriano, D. C. (1997). Environmental impacts of mining & smelting. Journal of Environmental Quality, 26, 590–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Duffus, J. H., & Templeton, D. M. (2002). “Heavy metals”—a meaningless term?, IUPAC technical report. Pure and Applied Chemistry, 15, 793–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Edraki, M., Baumgartl, T., Manlapig, E., Bradshaw, D., Franks, D. M., & Moran, C. J. (2014). Designing mine tailings for better environmental, social and economic outcomes: A review of alternative approaches. Journal of Cleaner Production, 84, 411–420.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.04.079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ehlers, L. J., & Luthy, R. G. (2003). Peer reviewed: Contaminant bioavailability in soil and sediment. Environmental Science and Technology, 37(15), 295A–302A.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es032524f.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Elliott, H. A., Dempsey, B. A., & Maille, P. J. (1990). Content and fractionation of heavy metals in water treatment sludges. Journal of Environment Quality, 19(2), 330.  https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq1990.00472425001900020021x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Eswaran, H., Almaraz, R., Reich, P., & Zdruli, P. (1997). Soil quality and soil productivity in Africa|NRCS soils, 10(4). https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/soils/use/?cid=nrcs142p2_054024. Accessed 15 Dec 2018.
  49. FAO/WHO. (1984). Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives and food contaminants. In Twenty-eight meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on food additives. Washington, DC: ILSI Press International Life Sciences Institute.Google Scholar
  50. Fasinu, P., & Orisakwe, O. E. (2013). Heavy metal pollution in sub-Saharan Africa and possible implications in cancer epidemiology. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP, 14(6), 3393–3402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fedotov, P. S., & Miró, M. (2007). Fractionation and mobility of trace elements in soils and sediments. In Biophysico-chemical processes of heavy metals and metalloids in soil environments (pp. 467–520). Hoboken: Wiley.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470175484.ch12.
  52. Felix-Henningsen, P., Urushadze, T., Steffens, D., & Kalandadze, B. (2010). Uptake of heavy metals by food crops from highly-polluted chernozem-like soils in an irrigation district south of Tbilisi, eastern Georgia. Agronomy Research, 8(1), 781–795.Google Scholar
  53. Feng, M.-H., Shan, X.-Q., Zhang, S., & Wen, B. (2005). A comparison of the rhizosphere-based method with DTPA, EDTA, CaCl2, and NaNO3 extraction methods for prediction of bioavailability of metals in soil to barley. Environmental Pollution, 137(2), 231–240.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2005.02.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Fijałkowski, K., Kacprzak, M., Grobelak, A., & Placek, A. (2012). The influence of selected soil parameters on the mobility of heavy metals in soils. Inżynieria i Ochrona Środowiska, 15(1), 81–92.Google Scholar
  55. Fosu-Mensah, B. Y., Addae, E., Yirenya-Tawiah, D., & Nyame, F. (2017). Heavy metals concentration and distribution in soils and vegetation at Korle Lagoon area in Accra Ghana. Cogent Environmental Science.  https://doi.org/10.1080/23311843.2017.1405887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gäbler, H.-E., Bahr, A., Heidkamp, A., & Utermann, J. (2007). Enriched stable isotopes for determining the isotopically exchangeable element content in soils. European Journal of Soil Science, 58(3), 746–757.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.2006.00863.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gallacher, J. E., Elwood, P. C., Phillips, K. M., Davies, B. E., Ginnever, R. C., Toothill, C., & Jones, D. T. (1984). Vegetable consumption and blood lead concentrations. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 38(2), 173–176. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1052344/.
  58. Garforth, J. M., Bailey, E. H., Tye, A. M., Young, S. D., & Lofts, S. (2016). Using isotopic dilution to assess chemical extraction of labile Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in soils. Chemosphere, 155, 534–541.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.04.096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gevorgyan, G. A., Ghazaryan, K. A., & Derdzyan, T. H. (2015). Heavy metal pollution of the soils around the mining area near Shamlugh Town (Armenia) and related risks to the environment. Assessment, 12, 13. http://www.waset.org/publications/10001755. Accessed 20 July 2017.
  60. Gommy, C., Perdrix, E., Galloo, J.-C., & Guillermo, R. (1998). Metal speciation in soil: Extraction of exchangeable cations from a calcareous soil with a magnesium nitrate solution. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 72(1), 27–45.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03067319808032642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Groenenberg, J. E., Römkens, P. F. A. M., Zomeren, A. V., Rodrigues, S. M., & Comans, R. N. J. (2017). Evaluation of the single dilute (0.43 M) nitric acid extraction to determine geochemically reactive elements in soil. Environmental Science & Technology, 51(4), 2246–2253.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b05151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gustafsson, Jon Petter. (2003). Modelling molybdate and tungstate adsorption to ferrihydrite. Chemical Geology, 200(1), 105–115.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2541(03)00161-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gustafsson, J. P., & Schaik, J. W. J. V. (2003). Cation binding in a mor layer: Batch experiments and modelling. European Journal of Soil Science, 54(2), 295–310.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2389.2003.00526.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hamilton, E. M., Young, S. D., Bailey, E. H., & Watts, M. J. (2018). Chromium speciation in foodstuffs: A review. Food Chemistry, 250, 105–112.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.01.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hamon, R. E., Lorenz, S. E., Holm, P. E., Christensen, T. H., & McGrath, S. P. (1995). Changes in trace metal species and other components of the rhizosphere during growth of radish. Plant Cell Environment, 18, 749–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hass, A., & Fine, P. (2010). Sequential selective extraction procedures for the study of heavy metals in soils, sediments, and waste materials—a critical review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 40(5), 365–399.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10643380802377992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Helmenstine, A. M. (2014). What is a heavy metal? Definition and list. ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-heavy-metal-605190. Accessed 18 June 2017.
  68. Hodson, M. E., Vijver, M. G., & Peijnenburg, W. J. G. M. (2011). Bioavalibility in soils. In F. A. Swartjes (Ed.), Dealing with contaminated sites: From theory towards practical application (pp. 721–746). Dordrecht: Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9757-6_16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hooda, P. (2010). Trace elements in soils. West Sussex: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Houba, V. J. G., Lexmond, Th M, Novozamsky, I., & van der Lee, J. J. (1996). State of the art and future developments in soil analysis for bioavailability assessment. Science of the Total Environment, 178(1–3), 21–28.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(95)04793-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Houba, V. J. G., Novozamsky, I., Huybregts, A. W. M., & van der Lee, J. J. (1986). Comparison of soil extractions by 0.01 M CaCl2, by EUF and by some conventional extraction procedures. Plant and Soil, 96(3), 433–437.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02375149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hough, R. L., Tye, A. M., Crout, N. M. J., McGrath, S. P., Zhang, H., & Young, S. D. (2005). Evaluating a ‘free ion activity model’ applied to metal uptake by Lolium perenne L. grown in contaminated soils. Plant and Soil, 270(1), 1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-004-1658-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ikenaka, Y., Nakayama, S., Muzandu, K., Choongo, K., Teraoka, H., Mizuno, N., et al. (2010). Heavy metal contamination of soil and sediment in Zambia. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 4(11), 729–739.  https://doi.org/10.1201/b16566-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Intawongse, M., & Dean, J. R. (2006). Uptake of heavy metals by vegetable plants grown on contaminated soil and their bioavailability in the human gastrointestinal tract. Food Additives & Contaminants, 23(1), 36–48.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030500387554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Izquierdo, M., Tye, A. M., & Chenery, S. R. (2012). Sources, lability and solubility of Pb in alluvial soils of the River Trent catchment, U.K. Science of the Total Environment, 433, 110–122.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.06.039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Izquierdo, Maria, Tye, A. M., & Chenery, S. R. (2013). Lability, solubility and speciation of Cd, Pb and Zn in alluvial soils of the River Trent catchment UK. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 15(10), 1844.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c3em00370a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Izquierdo, M., Tye, A. M., & Chenery, S. R. (2017). Using isotope dilution assays to understand speciation changes in Cd, Zn, Pb and Fe in a soil model system under simulated flooding conditions. Geoderma, 295, 41–52.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2017.02.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Järup, L. (2003). Hazards of heavy metal contamination. British Medical Bulletin, 68(1), 167–182.  https://doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldg032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kabata-Pendias, A. (2004). Soil–plant transfer of trace elements—an environmental issue. Geoderma, 122(2–4), 143–149.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2004.01.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kalis, E. J. J., Weng, L., Temminghoff, E. J. M., & van Riemsdijk, W. H. (2007). Measuring free metal ion concentrations in multicomponent solutions using the Donnan membrane technique. Analytical Chemistry, 79(4), 1555–1563.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ac0615403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Katebe, R., Michalik, B., Phiri, Z., & Nkhuwa, D. C. W. (2008). Status of naturally occurring radionuclides in copper mine wastewater in Zambia. In Status of naturally occurring radionuclides in copper mine wastewater in Zambia. Presented at the naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM V), proceedings of the fifth international symposium on naturally occurring radioactive material (pp. 409–417). Vienna: IAEA.Google Scholar
  82. Kelepertzis, E., & Argyraki, A. (2015). Geochemical associations for evaluating the availability of potentially harmful elements in urban soils: Lessons learnt from Athens, Greece. Applied Geochemistry, 59, 63–73.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2015.03.019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kelepertzis, E., & Stathopoulou, E. (2013). Availability of geogenic heavy metals in soils of Thiva town (central Greece). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185(11), 9603–9618.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-013-3277-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kim, R.-Y., Yoon, J.-K., Kim, T.-S., Yang, J. E., Owens, G., & Kim, K.-R. (2015). Bioavailability of heavy metals in soils: Definitions and practical implementation—a critical review. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 37(6), 1041–1061.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-015-9695-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kneen, M. A., Department of Geosciences, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas, United States of America, Ojelede, M. E., Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Digby Wells Environmental, Johannesburg, South Africa, Annegarn, H. J., & Energy Institute, Faculty of Engineering, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, South Africa. (2015). Housing and population sprawl near tailings storage facilities in the Witwatersrand: 1952 to current. South African Journal of Science, 111(11/12).  https://doi.org/10.17159/sajs.2015/20140186.
  86. Kříbek, B., Majer, V., Knésl, I., Nyambe, I., Mihaljevič, M., Ettler, V., et al. (2014). Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt, lead and zinc in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 99, 713–723.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2014.02.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kříbek, B., Majer, V., Veselovský, F., & Nyambe, I. (2010). Discrimination of lithogenic and anthropogenic sources of metals and sulphur in soils of the central-northern part of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district: A topsoil vs. subsurface soil concept. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 104(3), 69–86.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2009.12.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Krishnamurti, G. S. R., Huang, P. M., Van Rees, K. C. J., Kozak, L. M., & Rostad, H. P. W. (1995). Speciation of particulate-bound cadmium of soils and its bioavailability. Analyst (London), 120, 659–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Krishnamurti, G. S. R., Megharaj, M., & Naidu, R. (2004). Bioavailability of cadmium-organic complexes to soil alga—an exception to the free ion model. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 52, 3894–3899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Krishnamurti, G. S. R., & Naidu, R. (2000). Speciation and phytoavailability of cadmium in selected surface soils of South Australia. Soil Research, 38(5), 991.  https://doi.org/10.1071/SR99129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kwon-Rae, K., & Owens, G. (2009). Chemodynamics of heavy metals in long-term contaminated soils: Metal speciation in soil solution. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 21(11), 1532–1540.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(08)62451-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Labanowski, J., Monna, F., Bermond, A., Cambier, P., Fernandez, C., Lamy, I., et al. (2008). Kinetic extractions to assess mobilization of Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd in a metal-contaminated soil: EDTA vs. citrate. Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987), 152(3), 693–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Laing, G. D., de Moortel, A. V., Lesage, E., Tack, F. M. G., & Verloo, M. G. (2008). Factors affecting metal accumulation, mobility and availability in intertidal wetlands of the SCHELDT ESTUARY (Belgium). In J. Vymazal (Ed.), Wastewater treatment, plant dynamics and management in constructed and natural wetlands (pp. 121–133). Dordrecht: Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8235-1_11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lao, M., Companys, E., Weng, L., Puy, J., & Galceran, J. (2018). Speciation of Zn, Fe, Ca and Mg in wine with the Donnan membrane technique. Food Chemistry, 239, 1143–1150.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.07.040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lark, R. M., Hamilton, E. M., Kaninga, B., Maseka, K. K., Mutondo, M., Sakala, G. M., et al. (2017). Nested sampling and spatial analysis for reconnaissance investigations of soil: An example from agricultural land near mine tailings in Zambia: Reconnaissance sampling of soil. European Journal of Soil Science, 68(5), 605–620.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ejss.12449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Latif, A., Bilal, M., Asghar, W., Azeem, M., Ahmad, M. I., Abbas, A., et al. (2018). Heavy metal accumulation in vegetables and assessment of their potential health risk. Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2380-2391.1000234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Leggett, G. E., & Argyle, D. P. (1983). The DTPA-extractable iron, manganese, copper, and zinc from neutral and calcareous soils dried under different conditions 1. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 47(3), 518–522.  https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1983.03615995004700030025x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Leteinturier, B., Laroche, J., Matera, J., & Malaisse, F. (2001). Reclamation of lead/zinc processing wastes at Kabwe, Zambia: A phytogeochemical approach. South Africaln Journal of Science, 97, 627–627.Google Scholar
  99. Li, X., & Thornton, I. (2001). Chemical partitioning of trace and major elements in soils contaminated by mining and smelting activities. Applied Geochemistry, 16(15), 1693–1706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Li, M. S., & Yang, S. X. (2008). Heavy metal contamination in soils and phytoaccumulation in a manganese mine wasteland, South China. Air, Soil and Water Research, 1, 31. http://search.proquest.com/openview/f0babf0100c0203d27bfc2d7001fb68b/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=1036457.
  101. Lin, Y.-P., & Singer, P. C. (2006). Inhibition of calcite precipitation by orthophosphate: Speciation and thermodynamic considerations. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70(10), 2530–2539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Lindahl, J. (2014). Environmental impacts of mining in Zambia: Towards better environmental management and sustainable exploitation of mineral resources (SGU No. 2014:22). Geological Survey of Sweden. http://www.meetingpoints-mining.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Environmental-impacts-of-mining-in-Zambia.pdf. Accessed 16 Feb 2017.
  103. Lindsay, W. L., & Norvell, W. A. (1978). Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper 1. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 42(3), 421–428.  https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1978.03615995004200030009x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Liphadzi, M. S., & Kirkham, M. B. (2006). Availability and plant uptake of heavy metals in EDTA-assisted phytoremediation of soil and composted biosolids. South African Journal of Botany, 72(3), 391–397.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2005.10.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Liu, Y., Xiao, T., Ning, Z., Li, H., Tang, J., & Zhou, G. (2013). High cadmium concentration in soil in the three Gorges region: Geogenic source and potential bioavailability. Applied Geochemistry, 37, 149–156.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2013.07.022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lofts, S., & Tipping, E. (2011). Assessing WHAM/model VII against field measurements of free metal ion concentrations: Model performance and the role of uncertainty in parameters and inputs. Environmental Chemistry, 8(5), 501.  https://doi.org/10.1071/EN11049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Lombi, E., H. Gerzabek, M., & Horak, O. (1998). Mobility of heavy metals in soil and their uptake by sunflowers grown at different contamination levels. Agronomie, 18(5–6), 361–371. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00885890.
  108. Lombi, E., Hamon, R. E., McGrath, S. P., & McLaughlin, M. J. (2003). Lability of Cd, Cu, and Zn in polluted soils treated with lime, beringite, and red mud and identification of a non-labile colloidal fraction of metals using isotopic techniques. Environmental Science and Technology, 37(5), 979–984.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es026083w.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Luo, X., Yu, S., & Li, X. (2012). The mobility, bioavailability, and human bioaccessibility of trace metals in urban soils of Hong Kong. Applied Geochemistry, 27(5), 995–1004.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2011.07.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Ma, L. Q., & Rao, G. N. (1997). Chemical fractionation of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc in contaminated soils. Journal of Environment Quality, 26(1), 259.  https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq1997.00472425002600010036x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Makokha, A., Mghweno, L., Magoha, H., Nakajugo, A., & Wekesa, J. M. (2008). Environmental lead pollution and contamination in food aroud Lake Victoria, Kisumu, Kenya. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2, 349–353.Google Scholar
  112. Mao, L., Young, S. D., & Bailey, E. H. (2015). Lability of copper bound to humic acid. Chemosphere, 131, 201–208.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.03.035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Mao, L. C., Young, S. D., Tye, A. M., & Bailey, E. H. (2017). Predicting trace metal solubility and fractionation in urban soils from isotopic exchangeability. Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987), 231(Pt 2), 1529–1542.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.09.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Mapani, B., Ellmies, R., Kříbek, B., Kamona, F., Majer, V., Knésl, I., et al. (2009). Human health risks associated with historic ore processing at Berg Aukas, Grootfontein area Namibia. Communications of the Geological Survey of Namibia, 14, 25–40.Google Scholar
  115. Marang, L., Reiller, P., Pepe, M., & Benedetti, M. F. (2006). Donnan membrane approach: From equilibrium to dynamic speciation. Environmental Science and Technology, 40(17), 5496–5501.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es060608t.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Marschner, H. (1995). Mineral nutrition of higher plants. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  117. Marzouk, E. R., Chenery, S. R., & Young, S. D. (2013a). Measuring reactive metal in soil: A comparison of multi-element isotopic dilution and chemical extraction: Isotopic dilution and extraction of metals. European Journal of Soil Science, 64(4), 526–536.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ejss.12043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Marzouk, E. R., Chenery, S. R., & Young, S. D. (2013b). Predicting the solubility and lability of Zn, Cd, and Pb in soils from a minespoil-contaminated catchment by stable isotopic exchange. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 123, 1–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2013.09.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Mayer, K. U., Frind, E. O., & Blowes, D. W. (2002). Multicomponent reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media using a generalized formulation for kinetically controlled reactions: Reactive transport modeling in variably saturated media. Water Resources Research, 38(9), 13-1–13–21.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2001wr000862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Mclaughlin, M., Tiller, K., Naidu, R., & Stevens, D. (1996). Review: The behaviour and environmental impact of contaminants in fertilizers. Soil Research, 34(1), 1.  https://doi.org/10.1071/SR9960001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Meeussen, J. C. L. (2003). ORCHESTRA: An object-oriented framework for implementing chemical equilibrium models. Environmental Science and Technology, 37(6), 1175–1182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Melo, L. C. A., da Silva, E. B., & Alleoni, L. R. F. (2014). Transfer of cadmium and barium from soil to crops grown in tropical soils. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo, 38(6), 1939–1949.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-06832014000600028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Michelutti, B., & Wiseman, M. (1995). Engineered wetlands as a tailings rehabilitation. In R. Lal & B. A. Stewart (Eds.), Environmental restoration of the industrial city (pp. 135–141). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  124. Mileusnić, M., Mapani, B. S., Kamona, A. F., Ružičić, S., Mapaure, I., & Chimwamurombe, P. M. (2014). Assessment of agricultural soil contamination by potentially toxic metals dispersed from improperly disposed tailings, Kombat mine, Namibia. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 144, 409–420.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2014.01.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Mileusnić, M., Ružičić, S., Mapani, B. S., Kamona, A. F., Mapaure, I., & Chimwamurombe, P. M. (2012). Trace elements dispersion from a tailings impoundment (dam) and speciation study in surrounding agricultural soils: A case study from Kombat Mine area, Otavi Mountainland, Namibia. In Presented at the annual workshop IGCP/SIDA No. 594: Environmental and health impacts of mining in Africa. http://bib.irb.hr/prikazi-rad?rad=590421. Accessed 27 July 2017.
  126. Moreira, R. S., Mincato, R. L., & Santos, B. R. (2013). Application of sewage sludge on dystroferric red latosol. Ciencia E Agrotecnologia, 37(6), 9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Ngole-Jeme, V. M., & Fantke, P. (2017). Ecological and human health risks associated with abandoned gold mine tailings contaminated soil. PLoS One, 12(2), e0172517.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0172517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Njagi, J. M., Akunga, D. N., Njagi, M. M., Ngugi, M. P., & Njagi, E. M. N. (2017). Heavy metal concentration in vegetables grown around dumpsites in Nairobi City County Kenya. World Environment, 7(2), 49–56.Google Scholar
  129. Nriagu, J. O. (1992). Toxic metal pollution in Africa. Science of the Total Environment, 121, 1–37.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(92)90304-B.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Oelofse, S., Hobbs, P., Rascher, J., & Cobbing, J. (2010). The pollution reality of gold mining waste on the Witwatersrand. Resource, 12, 51–55.Google Scholar
  131. Ogundiran, M. B., & Osibanjo, O. (2009). Mobility and speciation of heavy metals in soils impacted by hazardous waste. Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability, 21(2), 59–69.  https://doi.org/10.3184/095422909X449481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Oliver, I. W., Hass, A., Merrington, G., Fine, P., & McLaughlin, M. J. (2005). Copper availability in seven Israeli soils incubated with and without biosolids. Journal of Environment Quality, 34(2), 508.  https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2005.0508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Olobatoke, R. Y., & Mathuthu, M. (2016). Heavy metal concentration in soil in the tailing dam vicinity of an old gold mine in Johannesburg, South Africa. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 96(3), 299–304.  https://doi.org/10.1139/cjss-2015-0081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Pepper, I. L., Zerzghi, H. G., Bengson, S. A., Iker, B. C., Banerjee, M. J., & Brooks, J. P. (2012). Bacterial populations within copper mine tailings: Long-term effects of amendment with class A biosolids. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 113(3), 569–577.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2012.05374.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Poswa, T., & Davies, T. (2017). The nature and articulation of ethical codes on tailings management in South Africa. Geosciences, 7(4), 101.  https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences7040101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Qu, C.-S., Ma, Z.-W., Yang, J., Liu, Y., Bi, J., & Huang, L. (2012). Human exposure pathways of heavy metals in a lead-zinc mining area, Jiangsu Province China. PLOS One, 7(11), e46793.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Ramos, F. T., de Dores, E. F. C., Weber, O. L. D. S., Beber, D. C., Campelo, J. H., & de Maia, J. C. S. (2018). Soil organic matter doubles the cation exchange capacity of tropical soil under no-till farming in Brazil. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 98(9), 3595–3602.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.8881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Ren, Z.-L., Tella, M., Bravin, M. N., Comans, R. N. J., Dai, J., Garnier, J.-M., et al. (2015). Effect of dissolved organic matter composition on metal speciation in soil solutions. Chemical Geology, 398, 61–69.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2015.01.020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Rieuwerts, John S. (2007). The mobility and bioavailability of trace metals in tropical soils: A review. Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability, 19(2), 75–85.  https://doi.org/10.3184/095422907X211918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Rieuwerts, J. S., Thornton, I., Farago, M. E., & Ashmore, M. R. (1998). Factors influencing metal bioavailability in soils: Preliminary investigations for the development of a critical loads approach for metals. Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability, 10(2), 61–75.  https://doi.org/10.3184/095422998782775835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Römkens, P. F., Guo, H.-Y., Chu, C.-L., Liu, T.-S., Chiang, C.-F., & Koopmans, G. F. (2009). Characterization of soil heavy metal pools in paddy fields in Taiwan: Chemical extraction and solid-solution partitioning. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 9(3), 216–228.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-009-0075-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Rosner, T., Boer, R. H., Reyneke, R., Aucamp, P., & Vermaak, J. J. G. (1998). A preliminary assessment of pollution contained in the unsaturated and saturated zone beneath reclaimed gold-mine residue deposits. PhD thesis, University of Pretoria, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences. Pretoria, Republic of South Africa. Water Research Commission (pp. 1–244), K5/797/0/1. https://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/30461/Complete.pdf?sequence=5. Accessed Mar 2019.
  143. Rösner, T., & Van Schalkwyk, A. (2000). The environmental impact of gold mine tailings footprints in the Johannesburg region, South Africa. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 59(2), 137–148. http://www.springerlink.com/index/0J2U19KHPHMUXRNG.pdf. Accessed 20 July 2017.
  144. Sabienë, N., Brazauskienë, D. M., & Rimmer, D. (2004). Determination of heavy metal mobile forms by different extraction methods. Ekologija, 1, 36–41.Google Scholar
  145. Sarsby, R. W. (2000). Environmental geotechnics. London: Thomas Telford.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Sauvé, S., Dumestre, A., McBride, M., & Hendershot, W. (1998). Derivation of soil quality criteria using predicted chemical speciation of Pb2+ and Cu2+. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 17(8), 1481–1489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Sauvé, S., McBride, M. B., Norvell, W. A., & Hendershot, W. H. (1997). Copper solubility and speciation of in situ contaminated soils: Effects of copper level, pH and organic matter. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 100(1–2), 133–149.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018312109677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Sauvé, S., Norvell, W. A., McBride, M., & Hendershot, W. (2000). Speciation and complexation of cadmium in extracted soil solutions. Environmental Science and Technology, 34(2), 291–296.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es990202z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Shaheen, S. M. (2009). Sorption and lability of cadmium and lead in different soils from Egypt and Greece. Geoderma, 153(1–2), 61–68.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2009.07.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Sherene, T. (2010). Mobility and transport of heavy metals in polluted soil environment. In Biological foruman international journal (vol. 2, pp. 112–121). http://www.academia.edu/download/38169700/24_T_SHREENE.pdf. Accessed 16 Feb 2017.
  151. Shi, Z., Toro, D. M. D., Allen, H. E., & Sparks, D. L. (2008). A WHAM-based kinetics model for Zn adsorption and desorption to soils. Environmental Science and Technology, 42(15), 5630–5636.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es800454y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Siedlecka, A. (1995). Some aspects of interactions between heavy metals and plant mineral nutrients. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 64(3), 265–272.  https://doi.org/10.5586/asbp.1995.035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Singh, S., Zacharias, M., Kalpana, S., & Mishra, S. (2012). Heavy metals accumulation and distribution pattern in different vegetable crops. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology.  https://doi.org/10.5897/jece11.076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Six, Johan, Feller, C., Denef, K., Ogle, S., Sa, Joao Carlos De Moraes, & Albrecht, A. (2002). Soil organic matter, biota and aggregation in temperate and tropical soils—effects of no-tillage. Agronomie, 22(7–8), 755–775.  https://doi.org/10.1051/agro:2002043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Six, J., & Jastrow, J. (2002). Organic matter turnover. Encyclopedia of Soil Science.  https://doi.org/10.1201/noe0849338304.ch252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Smith, K. S. (1999). Metal sorption on mineral surfaces: An overview with examples relating to mineral deposits. The environmental geochemistry of mineral deposits. Reviews in Economic Geology, 6, 161–182. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/87f7/c537a74cc5de93da9a584cb9c4b419323ae6.pdf.
  157. Smith, K. S., & Huyck, H. L. O. (1999). An overview of the abundance, relative mobility, bioavailability, and human toxicity of metals. Reviews in Economic Geology, 6(A), 27–70.Google Scholar
  158. Smolders, E., Lambregts, R. M., McLaughlin, M. J., & Tiller, K. G. (1998). Effect of soil solution chloride on cadmium availability to Swiss chard. Journal of Environmental Quality, 27(2), 426–431.  https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq1998.00472425002700020025x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Smolders, Erik, Oorts, K., Lombi, E., Schoeters, I., Ma, Y., Zrna, S., et al. (2012). The availability of copper in soils historically amended with sewage sludge, manure, and compost. Journal of Environment Quality, 41(2), 506.  https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2011.0317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Soares, M. R., & Alleoni, L. R. F. (2008). Contribution of soil organic carbon to the ion exchange capacity of tropical soils. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 32(3), 439–462.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10440040802257348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Song, Z., Shan, B., & Tang, W. (2018). Evaluating the diffusive gradients in thin films technique for the prediction of metal bioaccumulation in plants grown in river sediments. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 344, 360–368.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2017.10.049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Song, N., Wang, F., Ma, Y., & Tang, S. (2015). Using DGT to assess cadmium bioavailability to ryegrass as influenced by soil properties. Pedosphere, 25(6), 825–833.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(15)30063-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Soriano-Disla, J. M., Speir, T. W., Gómez, I., Clucas, L. M., McLaren, R. G., & Navarro-Pedreño, J. (2010). Evaluation of different extraction methods for the assessment of heavy metal bioavailability in various soils. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 213(1–4), 471–483.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-010-0400-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Sracek, O., Mihaljevič, M., Kříbek, B., Majer, V., & Veselovský, F. (2010). Geochemistry and mineralogy of Cu and Co in mine tailings at the Copperbelt, Zambia. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 57(1–2), 14–30.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2009.07.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Tchounwou, P. B., Yedjou, C. G., Patlolla, A. K., & Sutton, D. J. (2012). Heavy metals toxicity and the environment. EXS, 101, 133–164.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7643-8340-4_6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Temminghoff, E., Van der Zee, S., & De Haan, F. (1997). Copper mobility in a copper-contaminated sandy soil affected by pH and solid and dissolved organic matter. Environmental Science and Technology, 31, 1109–1115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Tessier, A., Campbell, P. G. C., & Bisson, M. (1979). Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Analytical Chemistry, 51(7), 844–851.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ac50043a017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Thornton, I. (1995). Metals in the global environment—facts and misconceptions. ICME Ottawa Topashka-Ancheva M, Metcheva. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 276, 14955–14960.Google Scholar
  169. Tipping, E. (1994). WHAMC—a chemical equilibrium model and computer code for waters, sediments, and soils incorporating a discrete site/electrostatic model of ion-binding by humic substances. Computers & Geosciences, 20, 973–1023.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0098-3004(94)90038-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Tipping, E. (1998). Humic ion-binding model VI: An improved description of the interactions of protons and metal ions with humic substances. Aquatic Geochemistry, 4(1), 3–47.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009627214459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Tipping, E. (2002). Cation binding by humic substances. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Tipping, E., Rieuwerts, J., Pan, G., Ashmore, M. R., Lofts, S., Hill, M. T. R., et al. (2003). The solid–solution partitioning of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) in upland soils of England and Wales. Environmental Pollution, 125(2), 213–225.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(03)00058-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Tlustoš, P., Száková, J., Kořínek, K., Pavlíková, D., Hanč, A., & Balík, J. (2006). The effect of liming on cadmium, lead, and zinc uptake reduction by spring wheat grown in contaminated soil. Plant, Soil and Environment, 52(1), 16–24.  https://doi.org/10.17221/3341-PSE.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Topcuoğlu, B. (2016). Heavy metal mobility and bioavailability on soil pollution and environmental risks in greenhouse areas, 3(1), 6.Google Scholar
  175. United Nations Environment Programme, General Assembly (12–22 June 1973). Report of the governing council on the work of its first session, 25/A/9025 available from. undocs.org 25/A/9025.Google Scholar
  176. Uriah, L., Stephen, N.-C. C., & Kenneth, T. (2014). Environmental health impact of potentially harmful element discharges from mining operations in Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Protection, 3(6–2), 14–18.  https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajep.s.s2014030602.12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Violante, A., Cozzolino, V., Perelomov, L., Caporale, A. G., & Pigna, M. (2010). Mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals and metalloids in soil environments. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 10(3), 268–292. http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?pid=S0718-95162010000100005&script=sci_arttext. Accessed 10 Aug 2017.
  178. Wang, X., Chen, X., Liu, S., & Ge, X. (2010). Effect of molecular weight of dissolved organic matter on toxicity and bioavailability of copper to lettuce. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 22(12), 1960–1965.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(09)60346-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Weng, L., Temminghoff, E. J. M., Lofts, S., Tipping, E., & Van Riemsdijk, W. H. (2002). Complexation with dissolved organic matter and solubility control of heavy metals in a sandy soil. Environmental Science and Technology, 36(22), 4804–4810.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es0200084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. World Health Organization. (1992). Cadmium environmental health criteria. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  181. World Health Organization. (1993). Standard maxima for metals in Agricultural soils. Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  182. Woldetsadik, D., Drechsel, P., Keraita, B., Itanna, F., & Gebrekidan, H. (2017). Heavy metal accumulation and health risk assessment in wastewater-irrigated urban vegetable farming sites of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. International Journal of Food Contamination.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40550-017-0053-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Wu, Q., Hendershot, W. H., Marshall, W. D., & Ge, Y. (2000). Speciation of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in contaminated soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 31(9–10), 1129–1144.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00103620009370502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Yabe, J., Ishizuka, M., & Umemura, T. (2010). Current levels of heavy metal pollution in Africa. The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 72(10), 1257–1263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Yobouet, Y. A., Adouby, K., Trokourey, A., & Yao, B. (2010). Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc speciation in contaminated soils. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 2(5), 802–812.Google Scholar
  186. Young, S. D. (2013). Chemistry of heavy metals and metalloids in soils. In B. J. Alloway (Ed.), Heavy metals in soils: Trace metals and metalloids in soils and their bioavailability (pp. 51–95). Dordrecht: Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-4470-7_3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Young, S. D., Tye, A., Carstensen, A., Resende, L., & Crout, N. (2000). Methods for determining labile cadmium and zinc in soil. European Journal of Soil Science, 51(1), 129–136.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2389.2000.00286.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Young, S. D., Zhang, H., Tye, A. M., Maxted, A., Thums, C., & Thornton, I. (2005). Characterizing the availability of metals in contaminated soils. I. The solid phase: Sequential extraction and isotopic dilution. Soil Use and Management, 21(1), 450–458.  https://doi.org/10.1079/sum2005348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Yu, S., He, Z. L., Huang, C. Y., Chen, G. C., & Calvert, D. V. (2004). Copper fractionation and extractability in two contaminated variable charge soils. Geoderma, 123(1–2), 163–175.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2004.02.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Yu, C., Ling, Q., Yan, S., Li, J., Chen, Z., & Peng, Z. (2010). Cadmium contamination in various environmental materials in an industrial area, Hangzhou, China. Chemical Speciation & Bioavailability, 22(1), 35–42.  https://doi.org/10.3184/095422910X12631439471494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Zhai, X., Li, Z., Huang, B., Luo, N., Huang, M., Zhang, Q., et al. (2018). Remediation of multiple heavy metal-contaminated soil through the combination of soil washing and in situ immobilization. Science of the Total Environment, 635, 92–99.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.04.119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Zhang, Hao, & Davison, William. (1995). Performance characteristics of diffusion gradients in thin films for the in situ measurement of trace metals in aqueous solution. Analytical Chemistry, 67(19), 3391–3400.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ac00115a005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Zhang, M.-K., Liu, Z.-Y., & Wang, H. (2010). Use of single extraction methods to predict bioavailability of heavy metals in polluted soils to rice. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 41(7), 820–831.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00103621003592341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Zhang, S., Song, J., Gao, H., Zhang, Q., Lv, M.-C., Wang, S., et al. (2016). Improving prediction of metal uptake by Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L.) based on a soil-plant stepwise analysis. Science of the Total Environment, 569–570, 1595–1605.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.07.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Zhang, H., Zhao, F.-J., Sun, B., Davison, W., & Mcgrath, S. P. (2001). A new method to measure effective soil solution concentration predicts copper availability to plants. Environmental Science and Technology, 35(12), 2602–2607.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es000268q.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Zhang, M., Zhou, C., & Huang, C. (2006). Relationship between extractable metals in acid soils and metals taken up by tea plants. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 37(3–4), 347–361.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00103620500440095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Zhao, F.-J., Rooney, C. P., Zhang, H., & McGrath, S. P. (2006). Comparison of soil solution speciation and diffusive gradients in thin-films measurement as an indicator of copper bioavailability to plants. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 25(3), 733–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Zia, M. H., Watts, M. J., Niaz, A., Middleton, D. R. S., & Kim, A. W. (2017). Health risk assessment of potentially harmful elements and dietary minerals from vegetables irrigated with untreated wastewater, Pakistan. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 39(4), 707–728.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-016-9841-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Zambia Agriculture Research InstituteChilangaZambia
  2. 2.Department of Soil Science, School of Agricultural SciencesUniversity of ZambiaLusakaZambia
  3. 3.Copperbelt UniversityKitweZambia
  4. 4.School of Biosciences, Sutton Bonington CampusUniversity of NottinghamLoughboroughUK
  5. 5.Inorganic Geochemistry, Centre for Environmental GeochemistryBritish Geological SurveyKeyworthUK

Personalised recommendations