Characterization, concentration and risk assessment of airborne particles using car engine air filter (case study: Tehran metropolis)

  • Fatemeh AhmadipourEmail author
  • Abbas Esmaeili Sari
  • Nader Bahramifar
Original Paper


Atmospheric elements released into the atmosphere can enter the human body through inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact and are then deposited in the body. Trace elements have potential risks to human health. For this purpose, the particulate matter accumulated by car air filters (CAFs) was studied. The morphology and distribution of particle size were examined using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The concentration of elements in CAFs and CAF-estimated air for 30 elements in Tehran, Iran, was analyzed in winter and summer, from February to July 2017. Samples were determined by inductively coupled mass plasma spectrometry. The most abundantly detected elements in both CAFs and air in both seasons were Ca, Mg, Na and Fe. The shape of the particles was mostly irregular and spherical. Most of the particles were between 0.5 and 1.0 µm. The carcinogenic risks of inhalation exposure to Cr and Co in winter and summer were higher than the acceptable level (< 1 × 10−4) for children and adults. The carcinogenic risks of As and Cr in both seasons were higher than 1 × 10−4 for children and adults via dermal contact. Also, the carcinogenic risks of Cr in both seasons of ingestion exposure were higher than 1.00E−04 for children and adults. The integrated noncarcinogenic risks of all trace elements were higher than the safe level (= 1) for children and adults in both seasons.


Car engine air filter Elements Health risk assessment Tehran Iran 



The authors would like to thank the Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Mazandaran, Iran, for scientific and financial support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fatemeh Ahmadipour
    • 1
    Email author
  • Abbas Esmaeili Sari
    • 1
  • Nader Bahramifar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine SciencesTarbiat Modares UniversityNoorIran

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