Characterization, concentration and risk assessment of airborne particles using car engine air filter (case study: Tehran metropolis)
Atmospheric elements released into the atmosphere can enter the human body through inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact and are then deposited in the body. Trace elements have potential risks to human health. For this purpose, the particulate matter accumulated by car air filters (CAFs) was studied. The morphology and distribution of particle size were examined using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The concentration of elements in CAFs and CAF-estimated air for 30 elements in Tehran, Iran, was analyzed in winter and summer, from February to July 2017. Samples were determined by inductively coupled mass plasma spectrometry. The most abundantly detected elements in both CAFs and air in both seasons were Ca, Mg, Na and Fe. The shape of the particles was mostly irregular and spherical. Most of the particles were between 0.5 and 1.0 µm. The carcinogenic risks of inhalation exposure to Cr and Co in winter and summer were higher than the acceptable level (< 1 × 10−4) for children and adults. The carcinogenic risks of As and Cr in both seasons were higher than 1 × 10−4 for children and adults via dermal contact. Also, the carcinogenic risks of Cr in both seasons of ingestion exposure were higher than 1.00E−04 for children and adults. The integrated noncarcinogenic risks of all trace elements were higher than the safe level (= 1) for children and adults in both seasons.
KeywordsCar engine air filter Elements Health risk assessment Tehran Iran
The authors would like to thank the Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Mazandaran, Iran, for scientific and financial support.
- ATSDR. (2012). Toxicological profile for chromium. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for toxic substances and disease registry, 592. Google Scholar
- Gholampour, A., Nabizadeh, R., Hassanvand, M. S., Taghipour, H., Rafee, M., Alizadeh, Z., et al. (2015). Characterization and source identification of trace elements in airborne particulates at urban and suburban atmospheres of Tabriz, Iran. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5413-7.Google Scholar
- International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). (2011). Agents classified by the IARC monographs (Vols. 1–102).Google Scholar
- Javid, M., Bahramifar, N., Younesi, H., Taghavi, S. M., & Givehchi, R. (2015). Dry deposition, seasonal variation and source interpretation of ionic species at Abali, Firouzkouh and Varamin, Tehran Province, Iran. Atmospheric Environment, 157, 74–90.Google Scholar
- Lee, C. S. L., Li, X. D., Zhang, G., Li, J., Ding, A. J., & Wang, T. (2007). Heavy metals and Pb isotopic composition of aerosols in urban and suburban areas of Hong Kong and Guangzhou, South China: Evidence of the long-range transport of air contaminants. Atmospheric Environment, 41, 432–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mohseni Bandpi, A., Eslami, A., Shahsavani, A., Khodagholi, F., Aliaghaei, A., & Alinejad, A. (2017). Water-soluble and organic extracts of ambient PM2.5 in Tehran air: assessment of genotoxic effects on human lung epithelial cells (A549) by the Comet assay. Toxin Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1080/15569543.2016.1259634.Google Scholar
- Roychowdhury, T. (2010). Groundwater arsenic contamination in one of the 107 arsenic-affected blocks in West Bengal, India: Status, distribution, health effects and factors responsible for arsenic poisoning. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 213, 414–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shahsavani, A., Yarahmadi, M., Hadei, M., Sowlat, M. H., & Naddafi, K. (2017). Elemental and carbonaceous characterization of TSP and PM10 during Middle Eastern dust (MED) storms in Ahvaz, Southwestern Iran. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-017-6182-1.Google Scholar
- Soltani, N., Keshavarzi, B., Moore, F., Tavakole, T., Lahijanzadeh, A. R., Jaafarzadeh, N., et al. (2015). Ecological and human health hazards of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in road dust of Isfahan metropolis, Iran. Science of the Total Environment, 505, 712–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Statistical Center of Iran (SCI). (2011). http://www.amar.org.ir.
- US-EPA. (2011a). Risk assessment guidance for superfund. In: Part A: Human health evaluation manual; Part E, supplemental guidance for dermal risk assessment; Part F, supplemental guidance for inhalation risk assessment (Vol. I). http://www.epa.gov/oswer/riskassessment/human_health_exposure.htm.
- US-EPA. (2013). User’s guide/technical background document for US EPA region 9’s RSL tables. Washington, DC, US Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.gov/region9/superfund/prg.htm.
- Valavanidis, A., Fiotakis, K., Vlahogianni, T., Bakeas, E. B., Triantafillaki, S., Paraskevopoulou, V., et al. (2006). Characterization of atmospheric particulates, particle-bound transition metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of urban air in the center of Athens (Greece). Chemosphere, 65, 760–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yang, Y. Y., Liu, L. Y., Guo, L. L., Lv, Y. L., Zhang, G. M., Lei, J., et al. (2015). Seasonal concentrations, contamination levels, and health risk assessment of arsenic and heavy metals in the suspended particulate matter from an urban household environment in a metropolitan city, Beijing, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4611-6.Google Scholar
- Zhang, N., Han, B., He, F., Xu, J., Niu, C., Zhou, J., et al. (2014). Characterization, health risk of heavy metals, and source apportionment of atmospheric PM2.5 to children in summer and winter: An exposure panel study in Tianjin, China. Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-014-0289-0.Google Scholar