Ultra-sonication for controlling the formation of disinfection by-products in the ClO2 pre-oxidation of water containing high concentrations of algae
Eutrophication has become great concern in recent years due to the fact that rivers, lakes, and reservoirs are the main drinking water source. Studies have been performed to enhance the removal of algae with ClO2 pre-oxidation, but there was high potential in the formation of chlorite and chlorate. In this study, ultra-sonication was employed to assist algae removal and control disinfection by-products formation in ClO2 pre-oxidation processes. It was found that solo ultra-sonication for 10 min (algae removal 86.11 ± 2.16%) could achieve similar algae removal efficiency as that with solo ClO2 (0.5 mg/L) pre-oxidation for 10 min (algae removal 87.10 ± 3.50%). In addition, no formations of chlorite and chlorate were detected in solo ultra-sonication process. Five-minutes ultra-sonication followed by 5-min 0.5 mg/L ClO2 treatment (total treatment time 10 min; algae removal 93.55 ± 3.22%) provided a better performance on algae removal compared to the solo ClO2 (0.5 mg/L) pre-oxidation for 10 min. Moreover, chlorite was undetectable. It suggests that the utilization of ultra-sonication in ClO2 pretreatment for algae removal has highly prevented the formations of chlorite and chlorate.
KeywordsDrinking water Oxidation Ultra-sonication combined with ClO2 Algae removal Chlorite and chlorate formation
Sincere thanks are to the National Major Science and Technology program for Water Pollution Control and Treatment (2015ZX07406-004), Shenzhen Government (scientific research foundation for high-level talent), and Harbin Institute of Technology (Shenzhen) for their financial support.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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