Environmental Geochemistry and Health

, Volume 41, Issue 6, pp 2473–2489 | Cite as

Distribution, sources and health risk assessment of contaminations in water of urban park: A case study in Northeast China

  • Yue Lu
  • Jianling XuEmail author
  • Hanxi Wang
  • Xuejun Liu
  • Wei Li
Original Paper


This case study was performed to determine whether the pollutants in water of urban park could bring health risk to human engaging in water-related activities such as swimming and provide evidence demonstrating the critical need for strengthened recreational water resources management of urban park. TN, NH4+-N, TP, Cu, Mn, Zn, Se, Pb, As, Cd and Cr(VI) contents were determined to describe the spatial distribution of contaminations; sources apportionment with the method of correlation analysis, factor analysis and cluster analysis were followed by health risk assessment for swimmers of different age groups. The results reveal that element contents in all sites do not exceed Chinese standard for swimming area and European Commission standard for surface water; all detected elements except Cr(VI) have a tendency to accumulate in the location of lake crossing bridge; Mn and Zn are considered to have the same pollution source including geogenic and anthropogenic sources by multivariable analysis. Carcinogenic risks of different age groups descend in the same order with non-carcinogenic risks. Among all elements, Zn and Mn contribute the lowest non-carcinogenic risk (5.1940E-06) and the highest non-carcinogenic risk (7.9921E-04) through skin contact pathway, respectively. The total average personal risk for swimmers in swimming area is 1.9693E-03, and this site is not suitable for swimming. Overall, it is possible that swimmers are exposed to risk via the dermal route when carrying out water-related activities, it is recommended that necessary precautions and management should be taken in other similar locations around the world.


Urban park Health risk Carcinogenic risk assessment Non-carcinogenic risk assessment Skin contact pathway 



This Project was supported by the Key Scientific Research Programs of the Jilin Province (No. 20190303084SF) and the Project of Jilin Provincial Science and Technology Department (No. 20180101092JC).


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Vegetation RestorationChangchunChina
  2. 2.School of EnvironmentNortheast Normal UniversityChangchunChina
  3. 3.Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Ecological Restoration and EcosystemChangchunChina
  4. 4.Jilin Provincial Science and Technology Innovation Center of Wetland Restoration and Function DevelopmentChangchunChina
  5. 5.Jilin Province Academy of Education and ScienceChangchunChina

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