Prediction of Cd toxicity to Daphnia magna in the mixture of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and kaolinite
In this study, we investigated cadmium toxicity created by adsorption kinetics in several mixtures containing two types of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNT and NH2-MWCNT) and natural kaolinite. Characteristics of two types of MWCNTs were measured by zeta potential and ATR FT-IR graphs and TEM images. The solution of CNTs and kaolinite was tested to study Cd adsorption kinetics and mechanisms of differentiation-associated toxicity using Daphnia magna in a binary system (Cd–MWCNTs and Cd–kaolinite) and a ternary system (Cd–MWCNTs–kaolinite). In the binary system, Cd removal efficiency was nearly 100% and 40% for MWCNTs and kaolinite because of surface charge, respectively, with increasing sorbent concentration. In the ternary system, the trend of adsorption rate was similar to that of binary system. In comparison with percent mortality in the binary system, the solution in the ternary system showed higher toxicity due to the interaction of MWCNTs–kaolinite coagulated particles, thereby decreasing Cd adsorption onto CNTs and kaolinites. Overall, kaolinite can affect the adsorption process of Cd on MWCNTs in negative ways, depending on adsorption state. In conclusion, our studies suggest that kaolinite differs with adsorption ability of Cd by MWCNTs, and toxicity is likely to be produced by multivariable regression in the adsorption state.
KeywordsCarbon nanotubes Cadmium Kaolinite Toxicity Daphnia magna
This work was supported by Korea Environment Industry & Technology Institute (KEITI) through “The Chemical Accident Prevention Technology Development Project,” funded by Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) (No. 2016001970001), and by “The development of test methods for the risk assessment of manufactured nanomaterials” by the Future Environmental Research Center of the Korea Institute of Toxicology.
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