Advertisement

A cross-sectional survey based on blood VOCs, hematological parameters and urine indicators in a population in Jilin, Northeast China

  • Xiaocui Li
  • Yuanyuan Guo
  • Xiuling Song
  • Yinghua He
  • Huiwen Zhang
  • Hao Bao
  • Xinxin Li
  • Yushen Liu
  • Yue Zhai
  • Juan Wang
  • Kun XuEmail author
  • Juan LiEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

The objective of this study was to examine whether long-term exposure to low-dose volatile organic compounds (VOCs) will have an effect on the health of non-occupational population. A total of 499 non-occupational participants aged more than 18 that live around Jilin Petrochemical Industrial Zone were chosen by stratified cluster random sampling. Their blood VOCs’ levels, hematological parameters and urine indicators together with detailed questionnaire data were used to find possible relationships using binary logistic regression analysis. The detection rate of benzene in the blood was high in the non-occupational population around the industrial area, and it even reached 82.3% in males but no significant difference was recorded between male and female population. In addition, trichloroethane (male: 33.2% V female: 21.7%; p = 0.002), carbon tetrachloride (males: 20.3% V females: 7.5%; p < 0.001) and trichlorethylene (male: 34.9% V female: 24.7%; p = 0.004) all showed significant differences in gender, and without exception, the prevalence of males was higher in these three VOCs than of females. The changes in red blood cell (RBC), hematocrit (HCT) and basophils are correlated with carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene and chloroform, respectively. And RBC, HCT and basophils are statistically significant in male compared with female of the study population. The increase in trichlorethylene was associated with an increase of 1.723% (95% CI 1.058–2.806) in HCT. The increase in carbon tetrachloride showed a more significant correlation with an increase of 2.638% in RBC count (95% CI 1.169–5.953). And trichloromethane led to a 1.922% (95% CI 1.051–3.513) increase in basophils. The changes in urinary WBC, urine ketone (KET) and urinary bilirubin (BIL) showed significant correlation with benzene, carbon tetrachloride and dibromochloromethane, respectively. The correlation in females is more significant than in males. The increase of benzene in the female population increased urinary leukocyte count by 2.902% (95% CI 1.275–6.601). The effect of carbon tetrachloride on KET was particularly pronounced, resulting in an increase of 7.000% (95% CI 1.608–30.465). Simultaneously, an increase in dibromochloromethane caused an increase of 4.256% (95% CI 1.373–13.192) in BIL. The changes in RBC, HCT and basophils can only serve as an auxiliary indicator for disease diagnosis, so they have no significant clinical significance. However, the alteration of urinary WBC, KET and BIL has great clinical significances, and it is suggested that the monitoring of the above indicators from low-dose long-term exposure be strengthen in this area.

Keywords

Monoaromatic hydrocarbons BTEX Halogenated hydrocarbons Hematological parameters Urine indicators 

Abbreviations

VOC

Volatile organic compounds

BTEX

Monoaromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, o-xylene)

BMI

Body mass index

GPS

Global positioning system

GC–MS

Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

WBC

White blood cell

RBC

Red blood cell

HGB

Hemoglobin

PLT

Platelet

NEUT

Neutrophil

LYMPH

Lymphocyte

MONO

Monocyte

EO

Eosinophil

HCT

Hematocrit

MCV

Erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume

MCH

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin

MCHC

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration

RDW

Red blood cell distribution width

PDW

Platelet distribution width

MPV

Mean platelet volume

PCT

Plateletcrit

BLD

Urine occult blood

PRO

Urine protein

GLU

Glucose in urine

NIT

Nitrite

KET

Urine ketone

BIL

Urinary bilirubin

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was funded by the National Institute of the Environment (Grant Number: 21111011101EHH(2015)4-04), the Development Foundation of Science and Technology in Jilin Province of China (Grant Number: 20160520167JH) and the Education Department of Jilin Province, China (Grant Number: JJKH20180239KJ). Xiaocui Li and Yuanyuan Guo contributed equally to this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10653_2019_241_MOESM1_ESM.docx (55 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 54 kb)

References

  1. Adebayo, A. H., Yakubu, O. F., Adegbite, O. S., & Okubena, O. (2017). Haematopoietic induction and hepatic protective roles of Hepacare® in CCl4-induced hepatic damaged rats. Comparative Clinical Pathology, 26(3), 679–688.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-017-2428-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altava, B., Burguete, M., García-Verdugo, E., Vicent, M., & Luis, S. (2001). The use of NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of polymer-supported reagents and catalysts. Tetrahedron, 57(41), 8675–8683.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0040-4020(01)00831-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bentayeb, M., et al. (2013). Higher prevalence of breathlessness in elderly exposed to indoor aldehydes and VOCs in a representative sample of French dwellings. Respiratory Medicine, 107(10), 1598–1607.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2013.07.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brodeur, J., & Pilon, D. (1986). 1,3-Butanediol-induced increases in ketone bodies and potentiation of CCl4 hepatotoxicity. Toxicology, 40, 165–180.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-483x(86)90076-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chuansumrit, A., & Chaiyaratana, W. (2014). Hemostatic derangement in dengue hemorrhagic fever. Thrombosis Research, 133(1), 10–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2013.09.028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Colman Lerner, J. E., et al. (2012). Characterization and health risk assessment of VOCs in occupational environments in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Atmospheric Environment, 55, 440–447.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.03.041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. De Groen, P. C., Kephart, G. M., Gleich, G. J., & Ludwig, J. (1994). The eosinophil as an effector cell of the immune response during hepatic allograft rejection. Hepatology, 20(3), 654–662.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.1840200317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. de Winter, M., Rioux, B. V., Boudreau, J. G., Bouchard, D. R., & Sénéchal, M. (2018). Physical activity and sedentary patterns among metabolically healthy individuals living with obesity. Journal of Diabetes Research.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7496768.Google Scholar
  9. Famurewa, A. C., et al. (2015). Protective effect of pretreatment of rats with calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa against carbon tetrachloride-induced hematotoxicity. Journal of Biological Sciences, 15(3), 138–143.  https://doi.org/10.3923/jbs.2015.138.143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Golub, M. S., et al. (2014). Developmental plasticity of red blood cell homeostasis. American Journal of Hematology, 89(5), 459–466.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ajh.23666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Guan, X., et al. (2016). Association of RBC count and Hct with MS and its components in China rural population. International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries, 37(2), 170–175.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13410-016-0471-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hong-Li, W., et al. (2017). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) source profiles of on-road vehicle emissions in China. Science of the Total Environment, 607–608, 253–261.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.07.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ibrahim, K. S., et al. (2014). Hematological effect of benzene exposure with emphasis of muconic acid as a biomarker. Toxicology and Industrial Health, 30(5), 467–474.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0748233712458141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kanjanasiranont, N., et al. (2017). Inhalation exposure and health risk levels to BTEX and carbonyl compounds of traffic policeman working in the inner city of Bangkok, Thailand. Atmospheric Environment, 152, 111–120.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.11.062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Karami, N., Mirzajani, F., Rezadoost, H., Karimi, A., Fallah, F., Ghassempour, A., et al. (2018). Initial study of three different pathogenic microorganisms by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. F1000Research, 6, 1415.  https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.12003.3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kim, J., Lee, S. S., & Khim, J. (2017). Peat moss-derived biochars as effective sorbents for VOCs’ removal in groundwater. Environmental Geochemistry and Health.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-017-0012-9.Google Scholar
  17. Kurata, C. (2006). Medical check-up findings characteristic of smokers: Aimed at improving smoking cessation interventions by physicians. Internal Medicine, 45(18), 1027–1032.  https://doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.45.1537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Laffel, L. (1999). Ketone bodies: A review of physiology, pathophysiology and application of monitoring to diabetes. Diabetes-Metabolism Research and Reviews, 15, 412–426.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4020(01)00831-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li, J., et al. (2014). Renal abscess caused by Brucella. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 28, 26–28.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2014.07.019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liu, B., et al. (2016). Characterization and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds based on 1-year of observational data in Tianjin, China. Environmental Pollution, 218, 757–769.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.07.072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ma, J. Q., et al. (2018). Protective effect of rutin against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in mouse kidney associated with the ceramide, MAPKs, p53 and calpain activities. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 286, 26–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2018.03.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mei-Chuan Huang, J. J. L. (2007). Characteristics of major volatile organic hazardous air pollutants in the urban air of Kaohsiung city. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 29(5), 447–455.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-007-9089-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mills, W. J., et al. (2012). Engineering case report. Toluene and methyl ethyl ketone exposure from a commercially available contact adhesive. Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene, 9(5), D95–D102.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2012.676981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nandan, A., Siddiqui, N. A., & Kumar, P. (2018). Assessment of environmental and ergonomic hazard associated to printing and photocopying: a review. Environmental Geochemistry and Health.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-018-0205-x.Google Scholar
  25. Niu, H., et al. (2016). Screening the emission sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in China by multi-effects evaluation. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-016-0828-z.Google Scholar
  26. Pegas, P. N., Alves, C. A., Evtyugina, M. G., Nunes, T., Cerqueira, M., Franchi, M., Pio, C. A., Almeida, S. M., Freitas, M. C. (2011). Indoor air quality in elementary schools of Lisbon in spring. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 33(5), 455–468.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-010-9345-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rahmouni, F., et al. (2017). Protective effects of Teucrium polium aqueous extract and ascorbic acid on hematological and some biochemical parameters against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced toxicity in rats. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 91, 43–48.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.04.071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rodrigues, P. C. O., et al. (2017). Association between weather seasonality and blood parameters in riverine populations of the Brazilian Amazon. Jornal de Pediatria (Rio de Janeiro), 93(5), 482–489.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jped.2016.11.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Saito, M. (2003). Strategies for occult urinary blood in annual health examination. Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi, 45(4), 139–143.  https://doi.org/10.1539/sangyoeisei.45.139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Smith, G. F. (1966). Trichlorethylene: A review. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 23, 249.Google Scholar
  31. Takahashi, K., & Yoshimura, A. (2001). A case of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria combined with focal segmental glomerular sclerosis. Nihon Jinzo Gakkai shi, 43, 39–43.Google Scholar
  32. Talukdar, J. R., Mahmud, I., & Rashid, S. F. (2018). Primary health care seeking behaviour of people with physical disabilities in Bangladesh: A cross-sectional study. Archives of Public Health.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13690-018-0293-1.Google Scholar
  33. Ulrik, C. S. (1995). Peripheral eosinophil counts as a marker of disease activity in intrinsic and extrinsic asthma. Clinical Experimental Allergy, 25(9), 820–827.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2222.1995.tb00024.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Weber, L. W. D. (2003). Hepatotoxicity and mechanism of action of haloalkanes: Carbon Tetrachloride as a toxicological model. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 33(2), 105–136.  https://doi.org/10.1080/713611034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wolkoff, P., et al. (2006). Organic compounds in office environments-sensory irritation, odor, measurements and the role of reactive chemistry. Indoor Air, 16(1), 7–19.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0668.2005.00393.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Xing, L., et al. (2018). Characteristics and health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds emitted from interior materials in vehicles: A case study from Nanjing, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(15), 14789–14798.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1661-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhang, X., et al. (2017). Ambient volatile organic compounds pollution in China. Journal of Environmental Sciences (China), 55, 69–75.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2016.05.036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhang, S., & Raftery, D. (2014). Headspace SPME–GC–MS metabolomics analysis of urinary volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Methods in Molecular Biology, 1198, 265–272.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-1258-2_17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhao, Y., et al. (2017). Improved provincial emission inventory and speciation profiles of anthropogenic non-methane volatile organic compounds: A case study for Jiangsu, China. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17(12), 7733–7756.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-7733-2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zheng, C., et al. (2017). Quantitative assessment of industrial VOC emissions in China: Historical trend, spatial distribution, uncertainties, and projection. Atmospheric Environment, 150, 116–125.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.11.023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaocui Li
    • 1
  • Yuanyuan Guo
    • 1
  • Xiuling Song
    • 1
  • Yinghua He
    • 2
  • Huiwen Zhang
    • 1
  • Hao Bao
    • 1
  • Xinxin Li
    • 1
  • Yushen Liu
    • 1
  • Yue Zhai
    • 1
  • Juan Wang
    • 1
  • Kun Xu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Juan Li
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Public HealthJilin UinversityChangchunChina
  2. 2.Jilin Provincial Center for Disease Control and PreventionChangchunChina

Personalised recommendations