Environmental Geochemistry and Health

, Volume 41, Issue 5, pp 1881–1894 | Cite as

Mineralogical, compositional and isotope characterization of human kidney stones (urolithiasis) in a Sri Lankan population

  • Rohana ChandrajithEmail author
  • Anushka Weerasingha
  • Kusala M. Premaratne
  • Dhanushke Gamage
  • Anuruddha M. Abeygunasekera
  • Michael M. Joachimski
  • Atula Senaratne
Original Paper


In order to understand the processes of stone formation, compositional, spectroscopic, mineralogical and crystallographic characteristics of human urinary stones collected from patients in Sri Lanka were investigated in detail. The data showed that the majority of urinary calculi were calcium oxalate, either whewellite or weddellite. Other solid phases of stones were composed of struvite, uricite and hydroxylapatite. However, mixed compositions were common except for whewellite stones which occur frequently in pure form. Scanning electron microscope observations and associated energy-dispersive X-ray analyses revealed that whewellite or weddellite was well crystalized compared to other stones types, while phosphate stones were mostly cryptocrystalline. The average δ13C and δ18O of stones were − 32.2‰ (− 37.3 to − 17.4‰) and − 24.2‰ (− 26.7‰ to − 8.9‰), respectively. The δ13C values were highly depleted compared to North American and European urinary stones. This may be due to food habits of Asians who consume rice as the staple food.


Urinary stones FTIR Calcium oxalate monohydrate Hydroxylapatite Carbon isotopes Trace elements 



Dr. Stefan Krumm of GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, is acknowledged for his help in XRD analysis. The study was performed with the approval of ethics committee at the Colombo South General Hospital, in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. This research study was funded by a research grant from the University of Peradeniya (RG/AF 2013/71/S) offered to RC and AS.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geology, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of PeradeniyaPeradeniyaSri Lanka
  2. 2.Urology UnitGeneral Hospital (Teaching) Colombo SouthDehiwelaSri Lanka
  3. 3.GeoZentrum NordbayernUniversity of Erlangen-NürnbergErlangenGermany

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