Advantages of a ClO2/NaClO combination process for controlling the disinfection by-products (DBPs) for high algae-laden water

  • Bin Ye
  • Yan Cang
  • Ji Li
  • Xiaolei Zhang
Original Paper


Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) has been widely used in the process of preoxidation and disinfection as an excellent water treatment reagent. However, the inorganic by-products produced by ClO2, such as chlorite (ClO2) and chlorate (ClO3) are harmful to human health, and this has become a potential problem when using ClO2 in drinking water treatment. In this study, ClO2 alone and a ClO2/NaClO combination process were carried out to evaluate the algae removal efficiency of the treatment and the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs: chlorite, chlorate, trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids) for high algae-laden water with 124.16 µg L−1 chlorophyll a (Chl.a) content. The results show that disinfection with 1.5 mg L−1 ClO2 alone results in a ClO2 concentration exceeding 0.7 mg L−1. ClO2 preoxidation/ClO2 disinfection is applicable for the control of effluent quality, but the ClO2 concentration still has an excessive risk when using 0.8 mg L−1 and 0.6 mg L−1 ClO2 for the two process, respectively. In the ClO2/NaClO combination process, the ClO2 concentration is below 0.6 mg L−1, and trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations are lower than 60% of the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) set by the World Health Organization (WHO). Further, the formation of ClO2 is more effectively controlled by NaClO preoxidation/ClO2 disinfection than ClO2 preoxidation/NaClO disinfection.


Chlorine dioxide (ClO2Disinfection Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) Algae Disinfection by-products (DBPs) 



This work was sponsored by Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Soil and Groundwater Pollution Control (No. 2017B030301012) and State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Integrated Surface Water-Groundwater Pollution Control. Additional support was provided by the National Water Pollution Control and Management Technology Major Project of China (2015ZX07406-004) and the Southern University of Science and Technology (Grant No. G01296001).


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Soil and Groundwater Pollution Control, School of Environmental Science and EngineeringSouthern University of Science and TechnologyShenzhenChina
  2. 2.State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Integrated Surface Water-Groundwater Pollution Control, School of Environmental Science and EngineeringSouthern University of Science and TechnologyShenzhenChina
  3. 3.School of Environmental Science and EngineeringHarbin Institute of TechnologyShenzhenChina

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