Development of scientifically justified proposals on the prevention and treatment of environmentally determined constitutional growth delay in children in the West Kazakhstan region

  • Akmaral K. Zhumalina
  • Erbol Zh. Bekmukhambetov
  • Balash T. Tusupkaliev
  • Mairamkul B. Zharlikasinova
Original Paper


Environmental pollution in many regions of Kazakhstan poses a threat to the growth and development of local children. For children living the near the Aral Sea, chrome processing and gas processing regions, we undertook a medical examination, including physical and sexual development parameters, laboratory studies (complete blood count, urinalysis, blood chemistry), bone age, blood levels of microelements (chromium, manganese, nickel, lead, copper) and hormones [thyroid (T3, T4, TSH), sexual (LH, FSH), growth (STH, IGF-1)], in consultation with relevant specialist doctors. Statistical analysis showed a significant prevalence of short stature among children living, on average, 22.9 versus 7.8% in the control region. Children in these regions have high blood levels of toxic chromium, manganese, lead and nickel compounds. The main causes of short stature in children living in the Aral Sea, chrome processing and oil and gas processing regions are cerebral–endocrine pathologies, hereditary diseases, somatogenic diseases, constitutional growth delay, a toxic chemical load and ecologically determined short stature. A working classification of short stature in children living in the Aral Sea, chrome processing and gas processing regions, including ecologically dependent short stature, has been developed. The scheme of medical and recreational measures for children living in the Aral Sea, chrome processing and gas processing regions was proposed.


Ecology Forecasting Correction Children Morbidity Physical development Hormones 



The study was carried out within the framework of grant financing of scientific research activities of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2013–2015 for The Improvement of Technologies for Children’s Health Care and Reproductive Health, Registration number of NTI: 0113RK00439.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship and/or publication of this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akmaral K. Zhumalina
    • 1
  • Erbol Zh. Bekmukhambetov
    • 2
  • Balash T. Tusupkaliev
    • 1
  • Mairamkul B. Zharlikasinova
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Children’s Diseases No. 1 and NeonatologyWest Kazakhstan Marat Ospanov State Medical UniversityAktobeRepublic of Kazakhstan
  2. 2.Department of Oncology and Visual DiagnosticsWest Kazakhstan Marat Ospanov State Medical UniversityAktobeRepublic of Kazakhstan

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