Inhalation exposure and potential health risk estimation of lanthanides elements in PM2.5 associated with rare earth mining areas: a case of Baotou city, northern China
- 78 Downloads
Particulate pollution, especially PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic equivalent diameter of 2.5 μm or less), has received increased attention in China recently. In this study, PM2.5 samples were collected in August 2013 and April 2014 from different regions of Baotou, the largest rare earth elements (REEs) processing city in northern China. The concentrations and distribution patterns of REEs in PM2.5 were analyzed, and the inhalation exposure to REEs associated with PM2.5 was assessed. The results showed that the REEs levels were 56.9 and 15.3 ng m−3 in August 2013 and April 2014, respectively. These values are much higher than those in non-REEs mining areas. The distribution patterns of REEs exhibited LREE enrichment. The Eu and Ce anomalies displayed slightly positive and negative values, respectively, which were in accordance with the background soil and ore. The average daily intake amounts of REEs for population through inhalation exposure of PM2.5 in Baotou were in the range of 5.09 × 10−7 to 2.25 × 10−5 mg kg−1 day−1.
KeywordsPM2.5 Mining activity Rare earth elements Inhalation exposure
This study was sponsored by the National Natural Scientific Foundation of China (Nos. 41401591 and 41571473).
- Chen, B. R., Yang, S. J., Yang, Y. N., & Qian, Q. F. (1985). Characteristics of rare-earth elements in the atmospheric particulate in Tianjin. Environmental Chemistry, 5, 58–62.Google Scholar
- Cheng, J. Z., & Che, L. P. (2010). Current Mining Situation and Potential Development of Rare Earth in China. Chinese Rare Earths, 31(2), 65–69–85.Google Scholar
- China National Environmental Monitoring Centre. (1990). Background concentrations of soil elements in China. Beijing: China Environmental Science Press.Google Scholar
- Dai, Q., Li, L., Yang, J., Liu, B., Bi, X., Wu, J., et al. (2016). The fractionation and geochemical characteristics of rare earth elements measured in ambient size-resolved PM in an integrated iron and steelmaking industry zone. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23, 17191–17199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Duan, X. (2012). Research methods of exposure factors and its application in environmental health risk assessment. Beijing: Science Press.Google Scholar
- GB 3095-2012. (2012). Ambient air quality standard. Beijing, China Environmental Science Press, Beijing.Google Scholar
- Hirano, S., & Suzuki, K. T. (1996). Exposure, metabolism, and toxicity of rare earths and related compounds. Environmental Health Perspectives, 104(Suppl. 1), 85–95.Google Scholar
- Hong, Y., Zhou, D. P., Ma, Y. J., & Liu, N. W. (2010). Trace element concentrations and distribution of atmospheric fine particles in the summer-fall in Shenyang. China Environmental Science, 30, 972–979.Google Scholar
- Kioumourtzoglou, M. A., Schwartz, J. D., Weisskopf, M. G., Melly, S. J., Wang, Y., & Dominici, F. (2016). Long-term PM2.5 Exposure and Neurological Hospital Admissions in the Northeastern United States. Environmental Health Perspectives, 124(1), 23–29.Google Scholar
- Meng, L. L., Wang, J., & Li, J. (2009). Thinking on protection and strategic reserves of rare earth resources in Baotou. Science &Technology of Baotou Steel (Group) Corporation, 36(6), 6–8.Google Scholar
- Niccum, P. K. (2010). Question: identify probable causes for high FCC catalyst loss. Hydrocarbon Processing, 89, 29–38.Google Scholar
- Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part A) EPA/540/1-89/002. (1989). Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
- Taylor, S. R., & McLennan, S. M. (1985). The continental crust its composition and evolution (p. 311). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
- US Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). Rare Earth Elements: A Review of production, processing, recycling, and associated environmental issues. EPA 600/R-12/572. (https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyNET.exe/P100EUBC.TXT?ZyActionD=ZyDocument%26Client=EPA%26Index=2011+Thru+2015%26Docs=%26Query=%26Time=%26EndTime=%26SearchMethod=1%26TocRestrict=n%26Toc=%26TocEntry=%26QField=%26QFieldYear=%26QFieldMonth=%26QFieldDay=%26IntQFieldOp=0%26ExtQFieldOp=0%26XmlQuery=%26File=D%3A%5Czyfiles%5CIndex%20Data%5C11thru15%5CTxt%5C00000005%5CP100EUBC.txt%26User=ANONYMOUS%26Password=anonymous%26SortMethod=h%7C-%26MaximumDocuments=1%26FuzzyDegree=0%26ImageQuality=r75g8/r75g8/x150y150g16/i425%26Display=hpfr%26DefSeekPage=x%26SearchBack=ZyActionL%26Back=ZyActionS%26BackDesc=Results%20page%26MaximumPages=1%26ZyEntry=1%26SeekPage=x%26ZyPUR).
- Wang, W., Tao, H., Kim, D., & Pan, X. (2012). Rare earth element components in atmospheric particulates during sand dust weather in Baotou. Journal of Environmental Hygiene, 1(6), 257–261.Google Scholar
- Waring, P. M., & Watling, R. J. (1990). Rare earth deposits in a deceased movie projectionist. A new case of rare earth pneumoconiosis. Medical Journal of Australia, 153, 726–730.Google Scholar
- Wei, F., Zheng, C., Chen, J., & Wu, Y. (1991). Study on the background contents on 61 elements of soils in China. Chinese Journal of Environmental Science, 12(4), 12–19.Google Scholar
- Yang, S. J., Yang, Y. N., Chen, B. R., & Chen, B. (1993). Characterization of marine aerosol and its sources over the western Pacific Ocean. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 13, 135–142.Google Scholar
- Zhang, F., Cheng, H., Wang, Z., Chen, H. L., Liu, J., & Lv, X. P. (2014). Composition characteristics and sources analysis of rare earth elements in PM2.5 in Wuhan City. Environmental Science and Technology, 37(2), 69–73. (in Chinese).Google Scholar