Biochar reduces cadmium accumulation in rice grains in a tungsten mining area-field experiment: effects of biochar type and dosage, rice variety, and pollution level
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Cadmium (Cd)-contaminated rice (Oryza sativa) in Southern China is a great threat to food security, and the paddy soil remediation is urgently needed to reduce Cd accumulation in rice. Application of biochar could effectively immobilize soil Cd and reduce Cd uptake by rice. Fields that were applied with soil treatments including control and 15 and 30 t ha−1 each hickory nut shell-derived biochar (KC) or maize straw-derived biochar (MC), and grown with two rice varieties (hybrid rice and late japonica rice) were selected for this study. The long-term effect of biochars on decreasing Cd bioavailability in paddy soils was evaluated. The results showed when MC was applied at 15 t ha−1, DTPA-Cd (soil cadmium extracted by diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid) was reduced by 20.0 and 34.5% in Field A (slightly Cd pollution) and B (moderately Cd pollution), respectively. In Field B, soil DTPA-Cd concentrations with application of 30 t ha−1 biochars were all lower than that of 15 t ha−1 biochar, but there were no significant differences between the two types of biochars. Cd concentration in rice grains and straws of hybrid rice are two times more than those of late japonica rice. Cd bio-concentration factor both of grains and straw was significantly increased by biochar application, which in Field A was higher than that in Field B. Our results suggest that biochars reduce Cd accumulation in rice grains by immobilizing soil Cd. KC has a higher potential in lowering Cd bioavailability than MC. Hybrid rice should be prohibited to cultivate in these areas.
KeywordsBiochar Cadmium Immobilization Rice variety Soil remediation Tungsten mine wastewater
This work was financially supported by the Key Science and Technology Special Project of Zhejiang Province (2015C02037), Science and Technology Development Planning Programme of Hangzhou City (20140533B68), Science and Technology Planning Programme of Jinhua City (2016-2-015), Public Welfare Technology Application Research Project of Zhejiang Province (2016C33102) and the Key Research and Development Project of Zhejiang Province (2017C03010). The authors thank Drs. Bin Guo and Junmin Wang with the Zhejiang Academic of Agricultural Sciences for their suggestions and supports in the selection of rice varieties and studied fields.
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