Organochlorines in urban soils from Central India: probabilistic health hazard and risk implications to human population
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This study presents distribution of organochlorines (OCs) including HCH, DDT and PCBs in urban soils, and their environmental and human health risk. Forty-eight soil samples were extracted using ultrasonication, cleaned with modified silica gel chromatography and analyzed by GC-ECD. The observed concentrations of ∑HCH, ∑DDT and ∑PCBs in soils ranged between < 0.01–2.54, 1.30–27.41 and < 0.01–62.8 µg kg−1, respectively, which were lower than the recommended soil quality guidelines. Human health risk was estimated following recommended guidelines. Lifetime average daily dose (LADD), non-cancer risk or hazard quotient (HQ) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) for humans due to individual and total OCs were estimated and presented. Estimated LADD were lower than acceptable daily intake and reference dose. Human health risk estimates were lower than safe limit of non-cancer risk (HQ < 1.0) and the acceptable distribution range of ILCR (10−6–10−4). Therefore, this study concluded that present levels of OCs (HCH, DDT and PCBs) in studied soils were low, and subsequently posed low health risk to human population in the study area.
KeywordsOrganochlorines HCH DDT PCBs Health hazard Risk Urban soils India
The authors are grateful to competent authorities of Central Pollution Control Board for providing the necessary facilities to conduct study. The views expressed in this paper are those of authors and do not necessarily reflect the organizations. The authors are also thankful to anonymous reviewers for their critical review and comments for improvisation of the manuscript.
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