Contamination characteristics of trace metals in dust from different levels of roads of a heavily air-polluted city in north China
Concentrations of eight trace metals (TMs) in road dust (RD) (particles < 25 μm) from urban areas of Xinxiang, China, were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The geometric mean concentrations of Zn, Mn, Pb, As, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd were 489, 350, 114, 101, 60.0, 39.7, 31.6, and 5.1 mg kg−1, respectively. When compared with TM levels in background soil, the samples generally display elevated TM concentrations, except for Cr and Mn, and for Cd the enrichment value was 69.6. Spatial variations indicated TMs in RD from park path would have similar sources with main roads, collector streets and bypasses. Average daily exposure doses of the studied TMs were about three orders of magnitude higher for hand-to-mouth ingestion than dermal contact, and the exposure doses for children were 9.33 times higher than that for adults. The decreasing trend of calculated hazard indexes (HI) for the eight elements was As > Pb > Cr > Mn > Cd > Zn > Ni > Cu for both children and adults.
KeywordsTrace metals Road dust Spatial variation Health risk assessment
The research is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (21607038), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2015M570629, 2016T90668), the Scientific Research Starting Foundation (5101219170102) and Science Foundation (5101219279007) of Henan Normal University and Science and Technology Research Project of Henan Province (162102110090).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
No potential conflict of interest was reported by the author.
- Al-Shayep, S. M., & Seaward, M. R. D. (2001). Heavy metal content of roadside soils along ring road in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Asian Journal of Chemistry, 13, 407–423.Google Scholar
- Anna, Bourliva, Christophoros, Christophoridis, Lambrini, Papadopoulou, Katerina, Giouri, Argyrios, Papadopoulos, Elena, Mitsika, et al. (2016). Characterization, heavy metal content and health risk assessment of urban road dusts from the historic center of the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 39, 611–634.Google Scholar
- Cao, Z. G., Yu, G., Lu, X. Y., Wang, M. L., Li, Q. L., Feng, J. L., et al. (2016). Particle size distribution, seasonal variation characteristics and human exposure assessment of heavy metals in typical settled dust from Beijing. Environmental Science, 37, 1272–1278.Google Scholar
- Charlesworth, S., Everett, M., McCarthy, R., Ordóñez, A., & de Miguel, E. (2003). A comparative study of heavy metal concentration and distribution in deposited street dusts in a large and a small urban area: Birmingham and Coventry, West Midlands, UK. Environment International, 29, 563–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- China-National-Environmental-Monitoring-Centre. (1990). The soil background values of China (pp. 330–382). Beijing: China Environmental Science Press.Google Scholar
- Hu, E. (2000). Environmental risk assessment and practical techniques and methods. Beijing: China Environmental Science Press. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Lin, Y., Fang, F., Wang, F., & Xu, M. (2015). Pollution distribution and health risk assessment of heavy metals in indoor dust in Anhui rural, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187, 4763.Google Scholar
- Morawska, L., & Salthammer, T. (2003). Indoor environment—Airborne particles and settled dust. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH.Google Scholar
- Najmeddin, A., Keshavarzi, B., Moore, F., & Lahijanzadeh, A. (2017). Source apportionment and health risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in road dust from urban industrial areas of Ahvaz megacity, Iran. Environmental Geochemistry and Health. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-017-0035-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Soltani, N., Keshavarzi, B., Moore, F., Tavakol, T., Lahijanzadeh, A. R., Jaafarzadeh, N., et al. (2015). Ecological and human health hazards of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in road dust of Isfahan metropolis. Iran. Science of the Total Environment, 505, 712–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- USEPA. (2002). Supplemental guidance for developing soil screening levels for superfund sites. Washington: US Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
- Wang, X., & Feng, W. (2011). Granularity Analysis of road dust in Beijing. Environmental Sanitation Engineering, 19, 2.Google Scholar
- Yuan, G.-L., Sun, T.-H., Han, P., Li, J., & Lang, X.-X. (2014). Source identification and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in topsoil using environmental geochemical mapping: Typical urban renewal area in Beijing, China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 136, 40–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhang, F., Zhao, S., Wang, S., Zhu, H., & Yang, Z. (2014). Pollution status and health risk assessment of heavy metals in street dust of Xinxiang. Journal of Environmental Health, 31, 435–437.Google Scholar