Toxic effects of coal fly ash on wheat seedlings

  • Zhongbin Liao
  • Xin Xiao
  • Yingying Hu
  • Xiaofei Sun
  • Hui Wang
  • Hongxuan Zhou
  • Yu Ma
  • James Li
Original Paper

Abstract

We studied heavy metal (HM) stress on wheat seedlings (AK-58) with and without coal fly ash (CFA) exposure. Three CFA spray rates were used to simulate air quality of the second level. Results show airborne particulates can directly enter plant leaves, affecting the whole plant. HM deposition decreases seedling size and mass and reduces activities of the chlorophyll family, photosynthesis enzymes (RuBP and PEPC), and photosynthesis efficiency. In leaves, HM deposition increases with the CFA spray rate. In roots, however, CFA exposure seems to reduce HM deposition, compared with the control without CFA exposure. A possible reason is that HM deposition in leaves from airborne particulates hinders photosynthesis, weakens the whole physiology of the seedlings, and consequently reduces root absorption of HMs from soil. CFA leads to chloroplast expansion, layer-stack disorder of grana, plastoglobule increase, and even chlorophyll membrane damage.

Keywords

Coal fly ash Heavy metal stress Wheat seedling Chloroplast 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds of the Central Universities (2017XKQY95) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (41671524).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhongbin Liao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xin Xiao
    • 1
  • Yingying Hu
    • 3
  • Xiaofei Sun
    • 1
  • Hui Wang
    • 1
  • Hongxuan Zhou
    • 4
  • Yu Ma
    • 1
  • James Li
    • 5
  1. 1.School of Environment Science and Spatial InformaticsChina University of Mining and TechnologyXuzhouChina
  2. 2.Agro-Environmental Protection InstituteMinistry of AgricultureTianjinChina
  3. 3.School of Electrical and Power EngineeringChina University of Mining and TechnologyXuzhouChina
  4. 4.School of Architecture and DesignChina University of Mining and TechnologyXuzhouChina
  5. 5.Department of Civil EngineeringRyerson UniversityTorontoCanada

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