Metals and metalloids in PM10 in Nandan County, Guangxi, China, and the health risks posed
- 62 Downloads
Intense mining, smelting, and tailing activities of polymetallic ore deposits have affected the environment in Nandan County, Guangxi, China. Samples of particulates with aerodynamic diameters low or equal 10 μm (PM10) were collected in Nandan County to investigate the concentrations of and health risks posed by 17 metals and metalloids in the PM10. The metal and metalloid concentrations were lower than those found in other industrial cities. The mean Cr concentration was 7.48 ng/m3. Significant higher metal and metalloid concentrations were found in PM10 from mining areas (Dachang and Chehe) than from the control area (Liuzhai) (p < 0.05). Principal component analysis indicated that the main sources of Ba, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Na, and Sr were resuspension of the soil produced through mineral erosion, the main sources of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn were smelting and mining activities, and the main source of Ni was fossil fuel combustion. Higher non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were posed in Dachang and Chehe than in Liuzhai. The non-carcinogenic risks posed to adults and children by individual metals and metalloids in PM10 at all the sites were low, but the non-carcinogenic risks posed to children by all the metals and metalloids together exceeded the safe level (i.e., risk value > 1). The carcinogenic risks posed by Cd, Ni, and Pb were negligible at all sites, while As, Co, and Cr posed potential carcinogenic risks to the residents.
KeywordsMetals Metalloids PM10 Health risk assessment Nandan
These studies have been funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41261082; 41161056).
- Cai, G. G., Zhang, X. H., Liang, M. N., Ye, L. L., & Jiang, J. P. (2014). Health risk assessment of heavy metals pollution in farmland soil surrounding Dachang ore district in Nandan. Journal of Guilin University of Technology, 34, 554–559.Google Scholar
- Chen, Z. M., Liang, G. Y., Mo, Z. Y., Huang, J. L., Liu, H. L., Mao, J. Y., et al. (2016). Health risk assessment of heavy metals from road dust in residential areas near a mining area of Guangxi. Journal of Environmental Occupation Medicine, 33, 1101–1105.Google Scholar
- Dai, Q. L., Bi, X. H., Wu, J. H., Zhang, Y. F., Wang, J., Xu, H., et al. (2015). Characterization and source identification of heavy metals in ambient PM10 and PM2.5 in an integrated iron and steel industry zone compared with a background site. Aerosol Air Quality Resource, 15, 875–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Duan, X. L. (2012). Research methods of exposure factor and its application in environmental health risk assessment. Beijing: Science Press.Google Scholar
- Eastman, R. R., Jursa, T. P., Benedetti, C., Lucchini, R. G., & Smith, D. R. (2013). Hair as a marker of environmental manganese exposure. Environmental Science and Technology, 7, 1629–1637.Google Scholar
- Goix, S., Point, D., Oliva, P., Polve, M., Duprey, J. L., Mazurek, H., et al. (2011). Influence of source distribution and geochemical composition of aerosols on children exposure in the large polymetallic mining region of the Bolivian Altiplano. Science of the Total Environment, 412–413, 170–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lv, H. M., Wang, X. Y., Wang, Q. W., Li, Y. H., Liu, W., & Pan, X. C. (2016). A time-series study on the association between air pollution and daily visits outpatients with eczema in Beijing. Journal of Clinical dermatol., 45, 328–331.Google Scholar
- Middleton, N., Yiallouros, P., Kleanthouse, S., Kolokotroni, O., Schwartz, J., Dockery, D. W., et al. (2008). A 10-year time-series analysis of respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity in Nicosia, Cyprus: the effect of short-term changes in air pollution and dust storms. Environmental Health., 7, 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Radhi, M., Box, M. A., Box, G. P., & Cohen, D. D. (2010). Size resolved chemical composition of the September 2009 Sydney dust storm. Air Quality and Climate Change Research, 10, 25–29.Google Scholar
- Rout, T. K., Masto, R. E., Padhy, P. K., Ram, L. C., George, J., & Joshi, G. (2015). Heavy metals in dusts from commercial and residential areas of Jharia coal mining town. Environmental Science Pollution Research, 73, 347–359.Google Scholar
- She, Y. Y., Huang, Y. F., Song, B., Xu, T., Lu, S. F., & Yuan, Z. N. (2015). Concentrations and health risk assessment of soil and crops in mining areas of Nandan County. Environmental Chemistry, 34, 2133–2135.Google Scholar
- Tian, M. L., Zhong, X. M., Xia, D. S., Fu, F. Y., Lu, S. F., Li, L., et al. (2016). Characteristics of heavy metal contents in human hairs of mine contaminated areas in Nandan County. Environmental Science, 37, 4867–4873.Google Scholar
- US EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (2011). Risk assessment guidance for superfund. Part, A. In: Human Health Evaluation Manual; Part E, Supplemental. Guidance for Dermal Risk Assessment; Part F, Supplemental Guidance for Inhalation Risk Assessment, I.Google Scholar
- USEPA (Unite States Environmental Protection Agency). (1989). Risk assessment guidance for superfund. Volume I: Human health valuation manual (part A). Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, Washington, DC https://www.epa.gov/risk/risk-assessment-guidance-superfund-rags-part.
- USEPA (Unite States Environmental Protection Agency). (2004). Risk assessment guidance for superfund volume I: Human health evaluation manual. (Part E, supplemental guidance for dermal risk assessment). https://www.epa.gov/risk/risk-assessment-guidance-superfund-rags-part-e
- USEPA (Unite States Environmental Protection Agency). (2009). Risk assessment guidance for superfund volume I: Human health evaluation manual. (Part F, supplemental guidance for inhalation risk assessment). https://www.epa.gov/risk/risk-assessment-guidance-superfund-rags-part-f.
- USEPA (Unite States Environmental Protection Agency). (2017). Regional screening levels (RSLs). https://www.epa.gov/risk/regional-screening-levels-rsls. Updated Nov 2017.
- Wang, Z., Liu, S. Q., Chen, X. M., & Lin, C. Y. (2008). Estimates of the exposed dermal surface area of Chinese in view of human health risk assessment. Journal of Safety and Environment, 8, 152–156.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization (WHO). (2002). Guideline for air quality. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
- Xian, B. Q. (1986). The characteristics of Nandan-hechi tin-multimetalic ore-forming belt, Guangxi. Scientia Geologica sinica, 4, 170–178.Google Scholar
- Xu, T., Zhong, X. M., Tian, M. L., Fu, F. Y., Lu, S. F., Yu, Y. Y., et al. (2017). Characteristics of Cd, As, and Sb in human urine affected by mining activities in Nandan of Guangxi. Journal of Guilin University of Technology, 37, 170–176.Google Scholar
- Ye, X. S., & Pan, Q. Y. (1994). Discovery history of Dachang Tin-polymetalic orefield, Nandan County, Guangxi. Guangxi Geology, 7, 85–94.Google Scholar
- Zhong, X. M., Yu, Y., Lu, S. F., Yang, Z. J., Kang, K. L., Kuang, H. F., et al. (2016). Evaluation of heavy metal contamination in soils in mining-intensive areas of Nandan, Guangxi. Journal of Agro-Environment Science, 35, 1694–1702.Google Scholar