Advertisement

Environmental Geochemistry and Health

, Volume 40, Issue 5, pp 1941–1953 | Cite as

Distribution and vertical migration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in forest soil pits of southeastern Tibet

  • Yonggang Xue
  • Xiaoping Wang
  • Ping Gong
  • Tandong Yao
Original Paper

Abstract

PAHs could be transported to Tibetan Plateau in accompany with atmospheric circulation. The forest regions were found be an important sink for PAHs, while their distributions and migrations in forest are still uncertain. In this study, soil profile samples were collected in southeastern Tibet and the concentrations, distributions, and migration of PAHs in forest region were investigated. The PAHs levels in the forest soils were at the low end of remote sites, ranged from 27.4 to 120.3 ng g−1 on a dry weight based. Due to low ambient temperature and high organic carbon content, enrichment of PAHs was found in higher altitude on north side. According to the soil profiles, the vertical distributions of PAHs in organic layers were mainly influenced by pedogenesis, while the vertical distributions in mineral layers were dominated by downward leaching effect. Enrich factor (EF) of PAHs was estimated, and the values in organic layers were positively correlated with the octanol–air partition coefficients (K OA), but EFs in mineral layers decreased with the K OA values. PAHs in the surface soils on the north side of forest were relatively stable, while the migration of PAHs on the south sides and other clearing sites was more active. The leaching rates of PAHs in clearing site ranged between 1.42 and 29.3%. The results from this study are valuable on the characterization of PAHs in Tibetan Plateau.

Keywords

PAHs Forest soil Southeastern Tibet Vertical migration 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41071321 and 41671480) and Youth Innovation Promotion Association (CAS2011067). We would like to thank all supporting staffs at the Southeastern Tibet Observation and Research Station for providing an alpine environment and assisting the sample collections on fields.

Supplementary material

10653_2017_9969_MOESM1_ESM.docx (229 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 228 kb)

References

  1. Aitkenhead, J. A., & McDowell, W. H. (2000). Soil C:N ratio as a predictor of annual riverine DOC flux at local and global scales. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 14, 127–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albanese, S., Fontaine, B., Chen, W., Lima, A., Cannatelli, C., Piccolo, A., et al. (2015). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the soils of a densely populated region and associated human health risks: The Campania Plain (Southern Italy) case study. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 37, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Atkinson, R., & Arey, J. (1994). Atmospheric chemistry of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Formation of atmospheric mutagens. Environmental Health Perspectives, 102, 117–126.Google Scholar
  4. Burkhard, L. P. (2000). Estimating dissolved organic carbon partition coefficients for nonionic organic chemicals. Environmental Science and Technology, 34, 4663–4668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen, D., Liu, W., Liu, X., Westgate, J. N., & Wania, F. (2008). Cold-trapping of persistent organic pollutants in the mountain soils of Western Sichuan, China. Environmental Science and Technology, 42, 9086–9091.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Choi, S. D., Shunthirasingham, C., Daly, G. L., Xiao, H., Lei, Y. D., & Wania, F. (2009). Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Canadian mountain air and soil are controlled by proximity to roads. Environmental Pollution, 157(12), 3199–3206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cong, Z., Kang, S., Gao, S., Zhang, Y., Li, Q., & Kawamura, K. (2013). Historical trends of atmospheric black carbon on Tibetan Plateau as reconstructed from a 150-year lake sediment record. Environmental Science & Technology, 47, 2579–2586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cong, Z., Kawamura, K., Kang, S., & Fu, P. (2015). Penetration of biomass-burning emissions from South Asia through the Himalayas: New insights from atmospheric organic acids. Scientific Reports, 5, 9580.Google Scholar
  9. Fang, Y., Chen, Y., Tian, C., Lin, T., Hu, L., Li, J., et al. (2016). Application of PMF receptor model merging with PAHs signatures for source apportionment of black carbon in the continental shelf surface sediments of the Bohai and Yellow Seas, China. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 121, 1346–1359.Google Scholar
  10. Galarneau, E. (2008). Source specificity and atmospheric processing of airborne PAHs: Implications for source apportionment. Atmospheric Environment, 42, 8139–8149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gong, P., Wang, X., Sheng, J., & Yao, T. (2010). Variations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in atmosphere of the Tibetan Plateau: Role of the monsoon system. Atmospheric Environment, 44, 2518–2523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Halsall, C., Barrie, L., Fellin, P., Muir, D., Billeck, B., Lockhart, L., Rovinsky, F. Y., Kononov, E. Y., & Pastukhov, B. (1997). Spatial and temporal variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Arctic atmosphere. Environmental Science & Technology, 31, 3593–3599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Harrison, R. M., Smith, D. J. T., & Luhana, L. (1996). Source apportionment of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons collected from an urban location in Birmingham, U.K. Environmental Science and Technology, 30, 825–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Horstmann, M., Bopp, U., & McLachlan, M. S. (1997). Comparison of the bulk deposition of PCDD/F in a spruce forest and an adjacent clearing. Chemosphere, 34, 1245–1254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Horstmann, M., & McLachlan, M. S. (1998). Atmospheric deposition of semivolatile organic compounds to two forest canopies. Atmospheric Environment, 32, 1799–1809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jernström, B., & Gräslund, A. (1994). Covalent binding of benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol 9,10-epoxides to DNA: Molecular structures, induced mutations and biological consequences. Biophysical Chemistry, 49, 185–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kirchner, M., Faus-Kessler, T., Jakobi, G., Levy, W., Henkelmann, B., Bernhoft, S., et al. (2009). Vertical distribution of organochlorine pesticides in humus along Alpine altitudinal profiles in relation to ambiental parameters. Environmental Pollution, 157, 3238–3247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Krauss, M., Wilcke, W., Martius, C., Bandeira, A. G., Garcia, M. V. B., & Amelung, W. (2005). Atmospheric versus biological sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a tropical rain forest environment. Environmental Pollution, 135(1), 143–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Krauss, M., Wilcke, W., & Zech, W. (2000). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in forest soils: Depth distribution as indicator of different fate. Environmental Pollution, 110, 79–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Li, A., Jang, J. K., & Scheff, P. A. (2003). Application of EPA CMB8.2 model for source apportionment of sediment PAHs in Lake Calumet, Chicago. Environmental Science & Technology, 37, 2958–2965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Li, J., Zhang, G., Li, X. D., Qi, S. H., Liu, G. Q., & Peng, X. Z. (2006). Source seasonality of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a subtropical city, Guangzhou, South China. Science of the Total Environment, 355, 145–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Liang, E., Wang, Y., Xu, Y., Liu, B., & Shao, X. (2010). Growth variation in Abies georgei var. smithii along altitudinal gradients in the Sygera Mountains, southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Trees, 24, 363–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liu, X., Li, J., Zheng, Q., Bing, H., Zhang, R., Wang, Y., et al. (2014). Forest filter effect versus cold trapping effect on the altitudinal distribution of PCBs: A case study of Mt. Gongga, Eastern Tibetan Plateau. Environmental Science and Technology, 48, 14377–14385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liu, B., Liang, E., & Zhu, L. (2011). Microclimatic conditions for Juniperus saltuaria Treeline in the Sygera Mountains, Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Mountain Research and Development, 31, 45–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Liu, X., & Luo, T. (2011). Spatiotemporal variability of soil temperature and moisture across two contrasting timberline ecotones in the Sergyemla Mountains, Southeast Tibet. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 43, 229–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lu, Y. L., Liu, S. R., Sun, P. S., Liu, X. L., & Zhang, R. P. (2007). Canopy interception of sub-alpine dark coniferous communities in western Sichuan, China. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, 18, 2398–2405.Google Scholar
  27. McLachlan, M. (1999). Framework for the interpretation of measurements of SOCs in plants. Environmental Science & Technology, 33, 1799–1804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McLachlan, M. S., & Horstmann, M. (1998). Forests as filters of airborne organic pollutants: A model. Environmental Science and Technology, 32, 413–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McLachlan, M., Czub, G., & Wania, F. (2002). The influence of vertical sorbed phase transport on the fate of organic chemicals in surface soils. Environmental Science & Technology, 36, 4860–4867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Moeckel, C., Nizzetto, L., Di Guardo, A., Steinnes, E., Freppaz, M., Filippa, G., et al. (2008). Persistent organic pollutants in boreal and montane soil profiles: Distribution, evidence of processes and implications for global cycling. Environmental Science and Technology, 42, 8374–8380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Moeckel, C., Nizzetto, L., Strandberg, B., Lindroth, A., & Jones, K. C. (2009). Air-boreal forest transfer and processing of polychlorinated biphenyls. Environmental Science and Technology, 43, 5282–5289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nam, J. J., Thomas, G. O., Jaward, F. M., Steinnes, E., Gustafsson, O., & Jones, K. C. (2008). PAHs in background soils from Western Europe: Influence of atmospheric deposition and soil organic matter. Chemosphere, 70(9), 1596–1602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Niu, J., Chen, J., Martens, D., Henkelmann, B., Quan, X., Yang, F., et al. (2004). The role of UV-B on the degradation of PCDD/Fs and PAHs sorbed on surfaces of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) needles. Science of the Total Environment, 322, 231–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nizzetto, L., Jarvis, A., Brivio, P. A., Jones, K. C., & Di Guardo, A. (2008). Seasonality of the air–forest canopy exchange of persistent organic pollutants. Environmental Science and Technology, 42, 8778–8783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nizzetto, L., & Perlinger, J. A. (2012). Climatic, biological, and land cover controls on the exchange of gas-phase semivolatile chemical pollutants between forest canopies and the atmosphere. Environmental Science and Technology, 46, 2699–2707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Obrist, D., Zielinska, B., & Perlinger, J. A. (2015). Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) in organic and mineral soil horizons from four U.S. remote forests. Chemosphere, 134, 98–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Park, D., Barabad, M., Lee, G., Kwon, S., Cho, Y., Lee, D., et al. (2013). Emission characteristics of particulate matter and volatile organic compounds in cow dung combustion. Environmental Science and Technology, 47, 12952–12957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Qiu, J. (2008). China: The third pole. Nature News, 454, 393–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ren, J., Wang, X., Xue, Y., Gong, P., Joswiak, D. R., Xu, B., et al. (2014). Persistent organic pollutants in mountain air of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau: Seasonal variations and implications for regional cycling. Environmental Pollution, 194, 210–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ruiz-Fernández, A. C., Ontiveros-Cuadras, J. F., Sericano, J. L., Sanchez-Cabeza, J.-A., Liong Wee Kwong, L., Dunbar, R. B., et al. (2014). Long-range atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants to remote lacustrine environments. Science of the Total Environment, 493, 505–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Seth, R., Mackay, D., & Muncke, J. (1999). Estimating the organic carbon partition coefficient and its variability for hydrophobic chemicals. Environmental Science and Technology, 33, 2390–2394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sheng, J., Wang, X., Gong, P., Joswiak, D. R., Tian, L., Yao, T., et al. (2013). Monsoon-driven transport of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls to the Tibetan Plateau: Three year atmospheric monitoring study. Environmental Science and Technology, 47, 3199–3208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Simonich, S. L., & Hites, R. A. (1994). Importance of vegetation in removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the atmosphere. Nature, 370(6484), 49–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tao, S., Wang, W. T., Liu, W. X., Zuo, Q. A., Wang, X. L., Wang, R., et al. (2011). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides in surface soils from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 13, 175–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tian, C., Liu, L., Ma, J., Tang, J., & Li, Y. (2011). Modeling redistribution of á-HCH in Chinese soil induced by environment factors. Environmental Pollution, 159, 2961–2967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tian, X., Shu, L., Wang, M., & Zhao, F. (2007). Study on the spatial and temporal distribution of forest fire in Tibet. Fire Safety Science, 01, 10–14.Google Scholar
  47. Tsai, J., Chen, S., Huang, K., Lin, W., Lee, W., Lin, C., Hsieh, L., Chiu, J., & Kuo, W. (2014). Emissions from a generator fueled by blends of diesel, biodiesel, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol: Analyses of emitted PM, particulate carbon, and PAHs. Science of The Total Environment, 466–467, 195–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Vilanova, R. M., Fernández, P., Martýìnez, C., & Grimalt, J. O. (2001). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in remote mountain lake waters. Water Research, 35, 3916–3926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wang, X., Gong, P., Sheng, J., Joswiak, D. R., & Yao, T. (2015). Long-range atmospheric transport of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the incursion of aerosols to the southeast Tibetan Plateau. Atmospheric Environment, 115, 124–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wang, X., Gong, P., Yao, T., & Jones, K. C. (2010a). Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers across the Tibetan Plateau. Environmental Science and Technology, 44, 2988–2993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wang, X., Gong, P., Zhang, Q., & Yao, T. (2010b). Impact of climate fluctuations on deposition of DDT and hexachlorocyclohexane in mountain glaciers: Evidence from ice core records. Environmental Pollution, 158, 375–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wang, Z., Ma, X., Na, G., Lin, Z., Ding, Q., & Yao, Z. (2009). Correlations between physicochemical properties of PAHs and their distribution in soil, moss and reindeer dung at Ny-Ålesund of the Arctic. Environmental Pollution, 157(11), 3132–3136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wang, X., Sheng, J., Gong, P., Xue, Y., Yao, T., & Jones, K. C. (2012). Persistent organic pollutants in the Tibetan surface soil: Spatial distribution, air–soil exchange and implications for global cycling. Environmental Pollution, 170, 145–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wang, C., Wang, X., Gong, P., & Yao, T. (2014a). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface soil across the Tibetan Plateau: Spatial distribution, source and air–soil exchange. Environmental Pollution, 184, 138–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wang, X., Xue, Y., Gong, P., & Yao, T. (2014b). Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Tibetan forest soil: Profile distribution and processes. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21, 1897–1904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wang, X., Yao, T., Cong, Z., Yan, X., Kang, S., & Zhang, Y. (2007). Concentration level and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and grass around Mt. Qomolangma, China. Chinese Science Bulletin, 52(10), 1405–1413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wania, F., & McLachlan, S. (2001). Estimating the influence of forests on the overall fate of semivolatile organic compounds using a multimedia fate model. Environmental Science & Technology, 35, 582–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wania, F., & Westgate, J. N. (2008). On the mechanism of mountain cold-trapping of organic chemicals. Environmental Science and Technology, 42, 9092–9098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Weiss, P., Lorbeer, G., & Scharf, S. (2000). Regional aspects and statistical characterisation of the load with semivolatile organic compounds at remote Austrian forest sites. Chemosphere, 40(9–11), 1159–1171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Xu, B., Cao, J., Hansen, J., Yao, T., Joswia, D. R., Wang, N., et al. (2009). Black soot and the survival of Tibetan glaciers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 22114–22118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Zhang, Y., & Tao, S. (2009). Global atmospheric emission inventory of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for 2004. Atmospheric Environment, 43, 812–819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zhang, Y., Tao, S., Shen, H., & Ma, J. (2009). Inhalation exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and lung cancer risk of Chinese population. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 21063–21067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau ResearchChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Key Lab of Aerosol Chemistry and Physics, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth EnvironmentChinese Academy of SciencesXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations