Environmental Geochemistry and Health

, Volume 39, Issue 2, pp 345–352 | Cite as

Effect of chemical amendments on remediation of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) and soil quality improvement in paddy fields

  • Sung Chul Kim
  • Young Kyu Hong
  • Se Jin Oh
  • Seung Min Oh
  • Sang Phil Lee
  • Do Hyung Kim
  • Jae E. YangEmail author
Original Paper


Remediation of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) in paddy fields is fundamental for crop safety. In situ application of chemical amendments has been widely adapted because of its cost-effectiveness and environmental safety. The main purpose of this research was to (1) evaluate the reduction in dissolved concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) with the application of chemical amendments and (2) monitor microbial activity in the soil to determine the remediation efficiency. Three different chemical amendments, lime stone, steel slag, and acid mine drainage sludge, were applied to paddy fields, and rice (Oryza sativa L. Milyang 23) was cultivated. The application of chemical amendments immobilized both Cd and As in soil. Between the two PTEs, As reduction was significant (p < 0.05) with the addition of chemical amendments, whereas no significant reduction was observed for Cd than that for the control. Among six soil-related variables, PTE concentration showed a negative correlation with soil pH (r = −0.70 for As and r = −0.54 for Cd) and soil respiration (SR) (r = −0.88 for As and r = −0.45 for Cd). This result indicated that immobilization of PTEs in soil is dependent on soil pH and reduces PTE toxicity. Overall, the application of chemical amendments could be utilized for decreasing PTE (As and Cd) bioavailability and increasing microbial activity in the soil.


Potentially toxic trace elements Chemical amendments Paddy soil Microbial activity Soil quality 



This study was supported by research grants from the Kangwon National University (C 1009703-01-01) and the Korean Ministry of Environment (MOE) as the “Development of Korean Evaluation and Management System of Surface Soil Resources” in the GAIA Project (201400054003).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sung Chul Kim
    • 1
  • Young Kyu Hong
    • 1
  • Se Jin Oh
    • 2
  • Seung Min Oh
    • 2
  • Sang Phil Lee
    • 2
  • Do Hyung Kim
    • 3
  • Jae E. Yang
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Bio-Environmental ChemistryChungnam National UniversityDaejeonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Biological EnvironmentKangwon National UniversityChuncheonRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Soil Environment CenterKorea Environmental Industry and Technology InstituteSeoulRepublic of Korea

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