Exposure assessment of particulate matter and blood chromium levels in people living near a cement plant
- 199 Downloads
This study evaluates the effect of air pollution caused by cement plants on nearby residential areas and performs an exposure assessment of particulate matter (PM) and total Cr, Cr6+, Pb, and Al. Further, the blood Cr levels of residents exposed to PM released by cement plants are also assessed. Nine buildings (eight residential and one elementary school building) close to cement plants were selected for this study, which were located in Pyeongtaek port, in west of Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. A total of 51 suspended particulate samples were collected at a flow rate of 2.0 L/min. Total Cr was more widely detected in residents’ houses and elementary schools. PM levels were higher at distances of 4.1 and 4.8 km than those at closer distances of 2.7 km. This was due to the influence of wind direction. The estimated mean blood level of Cr for the study participants was 3.80 μg/L, which is higher than levels estimated by other studies on Cr blood levels. Therefore, cement plants could cause an increase in total Cr and blood Cr levels in residential areas, and more continuous monitoring is necessary to better understand their impacts.
KeywordsCement plant Particulate matter Metal Blood chromium
This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (2015R1C1A1A02037363).
- AirKorea. (2016). http://www.airkorea.or.kr/.
- Al Smadi, B. M., Al-Zboon, K. K., & Shatnawi, K. M. (2009). Assessment of air pollutants emissions from a cement plant: A case study in Jordon. Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, 3(3), 265–282.Google Scholar
- ANSI/ASHRAE. (2004). Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality. Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.Google Scholar
- Bada, B. S., Olatunde, K. A., & Oluwajana, A. (2013). Air quality assessment in the vicinity of cement company. International Research Journal of Natural Sciences, 1(2), 34–42.Google Scholar
- Banu, S. K., Stanley, J. A., Lee, J., Stephen, S. D., Arosh, J. A., Hoyer, P. B., et al. (2011). Hexavalent chromium-induced apoptosis of granulosa cells involves selective sub-cellular translocation of Bcl-2 members, ERK1/2 and p53. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 251(3), 253–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bowen, H. J. M. (1979). Environmental chemistry of the elements. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Choi, H. C. (1995). Chromium and nickel concentrations in urine and serum of none-exposed group and workers in electroplating plants. Korean industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 5(1), 1–7.Google Scholar
- Commission of the European Communities (1986). Heavy metals: Identification of air quality and environmental problems in the European Community (Vol. 1 and 2). Report No. EUR 10678 EN/I and EUR 10678 EN/II, Luxembourg.Google Scholar
- IARC. (1990). Chromium, nickel and welding, IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans (Vol. 49, pp. 463–474). Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer.Google Scholar
- Jakobsson, K., Horstmann, V., & Welinder, H. (1993). Mortality and cancer morbidity among cement workers. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 50, 264–272.Google Scholar
- Kim, H. H., Lim, Y. W., Yang, J. Y., Moon, K. H., & Shin, D. C. (2004). Distribution of inorganic metals in blood of adults in urban area of Seoul, Korea. Journals in Environmental Toxicology, 19, 327–334.Google Scholar
- National Institute of Environmental Research (NIOER). (2007). Environmental health effects survey on residents living near the cement factory in Yeongwol County. NIRR NO. 2007-40-896. http://webbook.me.go.kr/DLi-File/NIER/06/016/5000995.pdf.
- NIOSH manual of analytical methods (NMAN). (2003). Fourth edition. Elements by ICP: METHOD 7301, Issue 1, March 15, 2003.Google Scholar
- Nisse, C., Tagne-Fotso, R., Howsam, M., Richeval, C., Labat, L., & Leroyer, A. (2017). Blood and urinary levels of metals and metalloids in the general adult population of Northern France: The IMEPOGE study, 2008-2010. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 220, 341–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Research of ambient heavy metals. (2003). Heath and environment, Busan Metropolitan City (in Korean).Google Scholar
- Rovira, J., Nadal, M., Schuhmacher, M., & Domingo, J. L. (2014). Environmental levels of PCDD/Fs and metals around a cement plant in Catalonia, Spain, before and after alternative fuel implementation. Assessment of human health risks. Science of the Total Environment, 485–486, 121–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Song, Q., Christiani, D. C., Xiaorong, W., & Ren, J. (2014). The global contribution of outdoor air pollution to the incidence, prevalence, mortality and hospital admission for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(11), 11822–11832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). (2016). US EPA Office of Research and Development Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-ferst) Air Web Mapping Service. https://developer.epa.gov/us-epa-office-of-research-and-development-community-focused-exposure-and-risk-screening-tool-c-ferst-air-web-mapping-service-2/.
- Vestbo, J., Knudsen, K. M., Raffn, E., Korsgaard, B., & Rasmussen, F. V. (1991). Exposure to cement dust at a Portland cement factory and the risk of cancer. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 48, 803–807.Google Scholar
- WHO, 7 million premature deaths annually linked to air pollution. WHO, March 25, 2014. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2014/air-pollution/en/.
- WHO, Ambient (outdoor) air quality and health. WHO, updated September 2016. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs313/en/.