Source apportionment and health risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in road dust from urban industrial areas of Ahvaz megacity, Iran
- 205 Downloads
This study investigates the occurrence and spatial distribution of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) (Hg, Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr, Al, Fe, Mn, V and Sb) in 67 road dust samples collected from urban industrial areas in Ahvaz megacity, southwest of Iran. Geochemical methods, multivariate statistics, geostatistics and health risk assessment model were adopted to study the spatial pollution pattern and to identify the priority pollutants, regions of concern and sources of the studied PTEs. Also, receptor positive matrix factorization model was employed to assess pollution sources. Compared to the local background, the median enrichment factor values revealed the following order: Sb > Pb > Hg > Zn > Cu > V > Fe > Mo > Cd > Mn > Cr ≈ Co ≈ Al ≈ Ni. Statistical results show that a significant difference exists between concentrations of Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Sb, V and Hg in different regions (univariate analysis, Kruskal–Wallis test p < 0.05), indicating the existence of highly contaminated spots. Integrated source identification coupled with positive matrix factorization model revealed that traffic-related emissions (43.5%) and steel industries (26.4%) were first two sources of PTEs in road dust, followed by natural sources (22.6%) and pipe and oil processing companies (7.5%). The arithmetic mean of pollution load index (PLI) values for high traffic sector (1.92) is greater than industrial (1.80) and residential areas (1.25). Also, the results show that ecological risk values for Hg and Pb in 41.8 and 9% of total dust samples are higher than 80, indicating their considerable or higher potential ecological risk. The health risk assessment model showed that ingestion of dust particles contributed more than 83% of the overall non-carcinogenic risk. For both residential and industrial scenarios, Hg and Pb had the highest risk values, whereas Mo has the lowest value.
KeywordsPollution assessment Urban dust pollution Multivariate statistics Positive matrix factorization Industrial activities
This research was financially supported by the Khuzestan Environmental Protection Office. The authors wish to express their gratitude to the Research Committee and Medical Geology Center of Shiraz University for logistic help.
- Acosta, J. A., Faz, A., Kalbitz, K., Jansen, B., & Martínez-Martínez, S. (2014). Partitioning of heavy metals over different chemical fraction in street dust of Murcia (Spain) as a basis for risk assessment. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 144, 298–305. doi: 10.1016/j.gexplo.2014.02.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Alloway, B. (2010). Heavy metals in soils: Trace metals and metalloids in soils and their bioavailability (3rd ed.). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
- CCME. (2007). Canadian soil quality guidelines for the protection of environmental and human health. Winnipeg: Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment.Google Scholar
- Charlesworth, S., Everett, M., McCarthy, R., Ordonez, A., & de Miguel, E. (2003). A comparative study of heavy metal concentration and distribution in deposited street dusts in a large and a small urban area: Birmingham and Coventry, West Midlands, UK. Environment International, 29, 563–573. doi: 10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00015-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cowherd, C., Muleski, G., Engelhart, P., & Gillete, D. (1985). Rapid assessment of exposure to particulate emissions from surface contamination. Prepared for EPA Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, EPA/600/8-85/002.Google Scholar
- Davami, A. H., Moharamnejad, N., Monavari, S. M., & Shariat, M. (2014). An urban solid waste landfill site evaluation process incorporating GIS in local scale environment: A case of Ahvaz city, Iran. International Journal of Environmental Research, 8(4), 1011–1018.Google Scholar
- Farmer, J. G., Broadway, A., Cave, M. R., Wragg, J., Fordyce, F. M., Graham, M. C., et al. (2011). A lead isotopic study of the human bioaccessibility of lead in urban soils from Glasgow, Scotland. Science of the Total Environment, 409, 4958–4965. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.08.061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ghebrehewet, S., & Stewart, A. G. (2016). Incidents and outbreak management. In S. Ghebrehewet, A. G. Stewart, D. Baxter, P. Shears, D. Conrad, & M. Kliner (Eds.), Health protection: Principles and practice (pp. 204–215). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Harb, M. K., Ebqa’ai, M., Al-rashidi, A., Alaziqi, B. H., Al Rashdi, M. S., & Ibrahim, B. (2015). Investigation of selected heavy metals in street and house dust from Al-Qunfudah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Environmental Earth Sciences, 74, 1755–1763. doi: 10.1007/s12665-015-4184-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hiller, E., Lachká, L., Jurkovič, L., Ďurža, O., Fajčíková, K., & Vozár, J. (2016). Occurrence and distribution of selected potentially toxic elements in soils of playing sites: A case study from Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia. Environmental Earth Sciences, 75, 1390–1403. doi: 10.1007/s12665-016-6210-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hu, B., Liu, B., Zhou, J., Guo, J., Sun, Z., Meng, W., et al. (2016). Health risk assessment on heavy metals in urban street dust of Tianjin based on trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22, 678–692. doi: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1104625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- IDOE (Iran Department of Environment). (2014). Iranian soil quality guidelines for the protection of environmental and human health. Iranian Department of Environment, Tehran (in Persian). http://www.doe.ir/Portal/file/?692345/1395-standards.pdf.
- IDOE (Iran Department of Environment). (2015). Gasoline and air quality. Iranian Department of Environment, Tehran (in Persian). http://www.doe.ir/Portal/File/ShowFile.aspx?ID=0e68095a-43fa-40af-ac6a-303a2ccbc52c.
- Kartal, S., Aydin, Z., & Tokalıoğlu, S. (2006). Fractionation of metals in street sediment samples by using the BCR sequential extraction procedure and multivariate statistical elucidation of the data. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 132(1), 80–89. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.11.091.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Keshavarzi, B., Moore, F., Najmeddin, A., Rahmani, F., & Malekzadeh, A. (2012). Quality of drinking water and high incidence rate of esophageal cancer in Golestan province of Iran: A probable link. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 34(1), 15–26. doi: 10.1007/s10653-011-9377-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- KPGO (Khuzestan Province Governor Office). (2011). Khuzestan Province statistical report. Ahvaz: Khuzestan Province, Governor Office.Google Scholar
- Lau, W. K. Y., Liang, P., Man, Y. B., Chung, S. S., & Wong, M. H. (2014). Human health risk assessment based on trace metals in suspended air particulates, surface dust, and floor dust from e-waste recycling workshops in Hong Kong, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21, 3813–3825. doi: 10.1007/s11356-013-2372-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Li, F., Zhang, J., Huang, J., Huang, D., Yang, J., Song, Y., et al. (2016). Heavy metals in road dust from Xiandao District, Changsha City, China: Characteristics, health risk assessment, and integrated source identification. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23, 13100–13113. doi: 10.1007/s11356-016-6458-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mahoney, G., Stewart, A. G., Kennedy, N., Whitely, B., Turner, L., & Wilkinson, E. (2015). Achieving attainable outcomes from good science in an untidy world: Case studies in land and air pollution. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 37(4), 689–706. doi: 10.1007/s10653-015-9717-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- MOKP (Meteorological Organization of Khuzestan Province). (2010). Weather reports. Ahvaz: Meteorological Organization, Khuzestan Province.Google Scholar
- Moore, F., & Keshavarzi, B. (2014). Medical geology of Khuzestan Province (Phase 1). Iran Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Khuzestan province: Internal Report. (in Persian).Google Scholar
- Nazzal, Y., Ghrefat, H., & Rosen, M. (2014). Application of multivariate geostatistics in the investigation of heavy metal contamination of roadside dusts from selected highways of the Greater Toronto Area, Canada. Environmental Earth Sciences, 71, 1409–1419. doi: 10.1007/s12665-013-2546-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- NEPAC (National Environmental Protection Agency of China). (1995). Environmental quality standard for soils (GB 15618–1995) (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Rastegari Mehr, M., Keshavarzi, B., Moore, F., Sacchi, E., Lahijanzadeh, A. R., Eydivand, S., et al. (2016). Contamination level and human health hazard assessment of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust deposited in Mahshahr, southwest of Iran. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(8), 1726–1748. doi: 10.1080/10807039.2016.1219221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rouzbahani, M. M., Ardakani, S., & Karimi, H. (2015). Determination of soil pollution using sediment geo-chemical indices. International Journal of Advances in Science Engineering and Technology, 5, 63–66.Google Scholar
- Sekhavatjou, M. S., Hosseini Alhashem, A. S., Taghavirad, S. S., Goudarzi, G., & Mollaee, A. R. (2011). Seasonal variation of mercury vapor concentrations in industrial, residential, and traffic areas of Ahvaz city, Southwest Iran. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(57), 12232–12236. doi: 10.5897/AJB11.2033.Google Scholar
- Shahsavani, A., Naddafi, K., Jafarzade Haghighifard, N., Mesdaghinia, A., Yunesian, M., Nabizadeh, R., et al. (2012). The evaluation of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 concentrations during the Middle Eastern Dust (MED) events in Ahvaz, Iran, from April through September 2010. Journal of Arid Environments, 77, 72–83. doi: 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2011.09.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shi, G., Chen, Z., Bi, C., Li, Y., Teng, J., Wang, L., et al. (2010). Comprehensive assessment of toxic metals in urban and suburban street deposited sediments (SDSs) in the biggest metropolitan area of China. Environmental Pollution, 158, 694–703. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2009.10.020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shilton, V. F., Booth, C. A., Smith, J. P., Giess, P., Mitchell, D. J., & Williams, C. D. (2005). Magnetic properties of urban street dust and their relationship with organic matter content in the West Midlands, UK. Atmospheric Environment, 39, 3651–3659. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.03.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Soltani, N., Keshavarzi, B., Moore, F., Tavakol, T., Lahijanzadeh, A. R., Jaafarzadeh, N., et al. (2015). Ecological and human health hazards of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in road dust of Isfahan metropolis, Iran. Science of the Total Environment, 505, 712–723. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.09.097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Statistical center of Iran. (2016). Results of the 2016 national population and housing census (industry section). https://www.amar.org.ir/english/Statistics-by-Topic/Industry#2221489-time-series.
- USDOE (United States Department of Energy). (2004). RAIS: Risk assessment information system. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management, Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Office. Accessed Sept 11, 2016, from https://rais.ornl.gov/.
- USEPA. (1996). Soil screening guidance: Technical background document. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (EPA/540/R-95/128).Google Scholar
- USEPA. (2001). Supplemental guidance for developing soil screening levels for superfund sites. Washington, DC: Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.Google Scholar
- USEPA. (2002). Supplemental guidance for developing soil screening levels for superfund sites. OSWER, 9355.4-24.Google Scholar
- USEPA. (2007). Concepts, methods and data sources for cumulative health risk assessment of multiple chemicals, exposures and effects: A resource document, EPA/600/R-06/013F. Cincinnati: National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development.Google Scholar
- USEPA. (2011). Exposure factors handbook: 2011 Edition. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC 20460, EPA/600/R-09/052F.Google Scholar
- USEPA. (2014). EPA positive matrix factorization (PMF) 5.0, fundamentals and user guide. Accessed May, 2014, from http://www.epa.gov/heasd/research/pmf.html.
- Valdez Cerda, E., Reyes, L. H., Alfaro Barbosa, J. M., Elizondo-Martinez, P., & Acuña-Askar, K. (2011). Contamination and chemical fractionation of heavy metals in street dust from the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey, Mexico. Environmental Technology, 32(10), 1163–1172. doi: 10.1080/09593330.2010.529466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Van den Berg, R. (1994). Human exposure to soil contamination: A qualitative and quantitative analysis towards proposals for human toxicological intervention values. RIVM Report no. 725201011. Bilthoven, the Netherlands: National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM).Google Scholar
- Yousaf, B., Liu, G., Wang, R., Imtiaz, M., Zia-ur-Rehman, M., Munir, M. A., et al. (2016). Bioavailability evaluation, uptake of heavy metals and potential health risks via dietary exposure in urban-industrial areas. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23, 22443–22453. doi: 10.1007/s11356-016-7449-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhao, L., Xu, Y., Hou, H., Shangguan, Y., & Li, F. (2013). Source identification and health risk assessment of metals in urban soils around the Tanggu chemical industrial district, Tianjin, China. Science of the Total Environment, 468–469, 654–662. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.08.094.Google Scholar
- Zhong, C., Yang, Z., Jiang, W., Hu, B., Hou, Q., Yu, T., et al. (2016). Ecological geochemical assessment and source identification of trace elements in atmospheric deposition of an emerging industrial area: Beibu Gulf economic zone. Science of the Total Environment, 573, 1519–1526. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.08.057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar