In vivo uptake of iodine from a Fucus serratus Linnaeus seaweed bath: does volatile iodine contribute?
- 157 Downloads
Seaweed baths containing Fucus serratus Linnaeus are a rich source of iodine which has the potential to increase the urinary iodide concentration (UIC) of the bather. In this study, the range of total iodine concentration in seawater (22–105 µg L−1) and seaweed baths (808–13,734 µg L−1) was measured over 1 year. The seasonal trend shows minimum levels in summer (May–July) and maximum in winter (November–January). The bathwater pH was found to be acidic, average pH 5.9 ± 0.3. An in vivo study with 30 volunteers was undertaken to measure the UIC of 15 bathers immersed in the bath and 15 non-bathers sitting adjacent to the bath. Their UIC was analysed pre- and post-seaweed bath and corrected for creatinine concentration. The corrected UIC of the population shows an increase following the seaweed bath from a pre-treatment median of 76 µg L−1 to a post-treatment median of 95 µg L−1. The pre-treatment UIC for both groups did not indicate significant difference (p = 0.479); however, the post-treatment UIC for both did (p = 0.015) where the median bather test UIC was 86 µg L−1 and the non-bather UIC test was 105 µg L−1. Results indicate the bath has the potential to increase the UIC by a significant amount and that inhalation of volatile iodine is a more significant contributor to UIC than previously documented.
KeywordsSeaweed bath thalassotherapy Fucus serratus Linnaeus pH Iodine Urinary iodine Inhalation
Analysis of variance
Coefficient of variation
Iodine deficiency disorders
Urinary iodine concentration
World Health Organisation
This research was financially supported by a President’s Bursary Award from the Institute of Technology Sligo. Seaweed samples and seaweed baths for the in vivo study were generously provided by Voya Seaweed Baths, Sligo. We acknowledge the technical assistance of Noreen Montgomery and Lydia Kirk of Sligo University Hospital and Dr James Murphy and Marcus Colon at Institute of Technology Sligo. We wish to also thank the volunteers who participated in the in vivo study.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2004). Public health statement iodine. Division of toxicology. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/ToxProfiles/tp158-c1-b.pdf, Accessed 29 Sept 2016.
- Albèr, C., Buraczewska-Norin, I., Kocherbitov, V., Saleem, S., Lodén, M., & Engblom, J. (2014). Effects of water activity and low molecular weight humectants on skin permeability and hydration dynamics—a double-blind, randomized and controlled study. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 36, 412–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Boothman, S. (2009). Iodine white paper: The use of iodine in wound therapy. http://www.systagenix.co.uk/cms/uploads/1042_Iodine_White_Paper_A5_(INT)LP_003.pdf. Accessed 29 Sept 2016.
- Dunn, J. T., Crutchfield, H. E., Gutekunst, R., & Dunn, A. D. (1993). Methods for measuring iodine in urine. Netherlands: ICCIDD/UNICEF/WHO.Google Scholar
- Gall, E. A., Küpper, F. C., & Kloareg, B. (2004). A survey of iodine content in Laminaria digitata. Botanica Marina, 47, 30–37.Google Scholar
- Goldsmith, L. A. (1983). Biochemistry and physiology of the skin. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Morrissey, J., Kraan, S., & Guiry, M. D. (2001). A guide to commercially important seaweeds on the Irish coast. Co. Dublin, Ireland: Bord Iascaigh Mhara/Irish Sea Fisheries Board.Google Scholar
- O’Sullivan, A. M., O’Callaghan, Y. C., O’Grady, M. N., Queguineur, D., Hanniffy, D. J., Troy, D. J., et al. (2011). In vitro and cellular antioxidant activities of seaweed extracts prepared from five brown seaweeds harvested in spring from the west coast of Ireland. Food Chemistry, 126, 1064–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ohashi, T., Yamaki, M., Pandav, C. S., Karmarkar, M. G., & Minoru, I. (2000). Simple microplate method for determination of urinary iodine. Clinical Chemistry, 46(4), 529–536.Google Scholar
- Risher, J. F., & Keith, L. S. (2009). Iodine and inorganic iodides: human health aspects. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
- Silva, C. L., Topgaard, D., Kocherbitov, V., Sousa, J. J. S., Pais, A. A. C. C., & Sparr, E. (2007). Stratum corneum hydration: Phase transformations and mobility in stratum corneum, extracted lipids and isolated corneocytes. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)—Biomembranes, 1768(11), 2647–2659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Smyth, P., Burns, R., Casey, M., Mullan, K., O’Herlihy, C., & O’Dowd, C. (2016). Iodine status over two decades: Influence of seaweed exposure. Irish Medical Journal, 109(6), 422.Google Scholar
- Westby, T., Duignan, G., Smyth, T., & Cadogan, A. (2016). Method validation and determination of total iodine in seaweed bathwater. Botanica Marina, 59(4), 241–249.Google Scholar
- WHO (2004). Iodine status worldwide WHO global database on iodine deficiency. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/43010/1/9241592001.pdf. Accessed 29 Sept 2016.
- WHO (2007). Assessment of the iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination. A guide for programme managers. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/43781/1/9789241595827_eng.pdf. Accessed 19 Oct 2016.