Environmental Geochemistry and Health

, Volume 39, Issue 5, pp 1191–1199 | Cite as

Correlation of lithium levels between drinking water obtained from different sources and scalp hair samples of adult male subjects

  • Shahnawaz Baloch
  • Tasneem Gul Kazi
  • Hassan Imran Afridi
  • Jameel Ahmed Baig
  • Farah Naz Talpur
  • Muhammad Balal Arain
Original Paper


There is some evidence that natural levels of lithium (Li) in drinking water may have a protective effect on neurological health. In present study, we evaluate the Li levels in drinking water of different origin and bottled mineral water. To evaluate the association between lithium levels in drinking water with human health, the scalp hair samples of male subjects (25–45 years) consumed drinking water obtained from ground water (GW), municipal treated water (MTW) and bottled mineral water (BMW) from rural and urban areas of Sindh, Pakistan were selected. The water samples were pre-concentrated five to tenfold at 60 °C using temperature-controlled electric hot plate. While scalp hair samples were oxidized by acid in a microwave oven, prior to determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Li content in different types of drinking water, GW, MTW and BMW was found in the range of 5.12–22.6, 4.2–16.7 and 0.0–16.3 µg/L, respectively. It was observed that Li concentration in the scalp hair samples of adult males consuming ground water was found to be higher, ranged as 292–393 μg/kg, than those who are drinking municipal treated and bottle mineral water (212–268 and 145–208 μg/kg), respectively.


Lithium Scalp hair Adult males Drinking water Atomic absorption spectrophotometer 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shahnawaz Baloch
    • 1
  • Tasneem Gul Kazi
    • 1
  • Hassan Imran Afridi
    • 1
  • Jameel Ahmed Baig
    • 1
  • Farah Naz Talpur
    • 1
  • Muhammad Balal Arain
    • 2
  1. 1.National Centre of Excellence in Analytical ChemistryUniversity of SindhJamshoroPakistan
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryAbdul Wali Khan UniversityMardanPakistan

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