Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plastic products, indoor dust, sediment and fish from informal e-waste recycling sites in Vietnam: a comprehensive assessment of contamination, accumulation pattern, emissions, and human exposure
- First Online:
- 253 Downloads
Residue concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in different kinds of samples including consumer products, indoor dust, sediment and fish collected from two e-waste recycling sites, and some industrial, urban and suburban areas in Vietnam were determined to provide a comprehensive assessment of the contamination levels, accumulation pattern, emission potential and human exposure through dust ingestion and fish consumption. There was a large variation of PBDE levels in plastic parts of obsolete electronic equipment (from 1730 to 97,300 ng/g), which is a common result observed in consumer plastic products reported elsewhere. PBDE levels in indoor dust samples collected from e-waste recycling sites ranged from 250 to 8740 ng/g, which were markedly higher than those in industrial areas and household offices. Emission rate of PBDEs from plastic parts of disposed electronic equipment to dust was estimated to be in a range from 3.4 × 10−7 to 1.2 × 10−5 (year−1) for total PBDEs and from 2.9 × 10−7 to 7.2 × 10−6 (year−1) for BDE-209. Some fish species collected from ponds in e-waste recycling villages contained elevated levels of PBDEs, especially BDE-209, which were markedly higher than those in fish previously reported. Overall, levels and patterns of PBDE accumulation in different kinds of samples suggest significant emission from e-waste sites and that these areas are potential sources of PBDE contamination. Intakes of PBDEs via fish consumption were generally higher than those estimated through dust ingestion. Intake of BDE-99 and BDE-209 through dust ingestion contributes a large proportion due to higher concentrations in dust and fish. Body weight normalized daily intake through dust ingestion estimated for the e-waste recycling sites (0.10–3.46 ng/day/kg body wt.) were in a high range as compared to those reported in other countries. Our results highlight the potential releases of PBDEs from informal recycling activities and the high degree of human exposure and suggest the need for continuous investigations on environmental pollution and toxic impacts of e-waste-related hazardous chemicals.
KeywordsPolybrominated diphenyl ethers Commercial deca-BDE e-Waste recycling sites Emission rate Human exposure
- Binelli, A., Sarkar, S. K., Chatterjee, M., Riva, C., Parolini, M., Bhattacharya, B., et al. (2007). Concentration of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediment cores of Sundarban mangrove wetland, northeastern part of Bay of Bengal (India). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 54, 1220–1229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bromine Science and Environmental Forum (BSEF). (2003). Major brominated flame retardants volume estimates. Total market demand by region in 2001. http://www.bsef-site.com/bromine/our_industry/. Accessed 8 Jan 2013.
- Cunha, S. C., Kalachova, K., Pulkrabova, J., Fernandes, J. O., Oliveira, M. B. P. P., Alves, A., et al. (2010). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) contents in house and car dust of Portugal by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Chemosphere, 78, 1263–1271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Eguchi, A., Isobe, T., Ramu, K., & Tanabe, S. (2011). Optimisation of the analytical method for octa-, nona- and decabrominated diphenyl ethers using gas chromatography—Quadrupole mass spectrometry and isotope dilution. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 91, 348–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fu, J., Wang, Y., Zhang, A., Zhang, Q., Zhao, Z., Wang, T., et al. (2011). Spatial distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in an e-waste dismantling region in Southeast China: Use of apple snail (Ampullariidae) as a bioindicator. Chemosphere, 82, 648–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Guo, Y., Tang, H. L., Meng, X. Z., Mai, B. X., & Zeng, Y. P. (2007). Tissue distribution of PBDEs in Mandarin Fish. Environmental Sciences, 28, 2806–2810.Google Scholar
- Hien, P. T., Tue, N. M., Suzuki, G., Takahashi, S., & Tanabe, S. (2012). Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fishes collected from Tam Giang—Cau Hai Lagoon, Vietnam. In M. Kawaguchi, K. Misaki, H. Sato, T. Yokokawa, T. Itai, T. M. Nguyen, J. Ono & S. Tanabe (Eds.), Interdisciplinary studies on environmental chemistry—Environmental pollution and ecotoxicology (pp. 221–227). Tokyo: TERRAPUB.Google Scholar
- Mai, P. T. N., Thuong, N. V., Tham, T. T., Hoang, N. K., Anh, H. Q., Tri, T. M., et al. (2015). Distribution, accumulation profile, and risk assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediment from lake and river systems in Hanoi Metropolitan Area, Vietnam. Environmental Science and Pollution Research,. doi:10.1007/s11356-015-5235-7.Google Scholar
- Matsukami, H., Tue, N. M., Suzuki, G., Someya, M., Tuyen, L. H., Viet, P. H., et al. (2015). Flame retardant emission from e-waste recycling operation in northern Vietnam: Environmental occurrence of emerging organophosphorus esters used as alternatives for PBDEs. Science of the Total Environment, 514, 492–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ministry of Health (MOH), & National Institute of Nutrition. (2010). General nutrition survey 2009–2010. Hanoi: Medical Publishing House.Google Scholar
- Ramu, K., Kajiwara, N., Sudaryanto, A., Isobe, T., Takahashi, S., Subramanian, A., et al. (2007). Asian Mussel Watch Program: Contamination status of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and organochlorines in coastal waters of Asian Countries. Environmental Science and Technology, 41, 4580–4586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tue, N. M., Sudaryanto, A., Minh, T. B., Isobe, T., Takahashi, S., Viet, P. H., et al. (2010). Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants in breast milk from women living in Vietnamese e-waste recycling sites. Science of the Total Environment, 408, 2155–2162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tue, N. M., Takahashi, S., Suzuki, G., Isobe, T., Viet, P. H., Kobara, Y., et al. (2013). Contamination of indoor dust and air by polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants and relevance of non-dietary exposure in Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites. Environment International, 51, 160–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). (2012). Guidance document submission: Flexible polyurethane foam waste management and Recycling. http://www.pfa.org/Library/UNIDO_PFA_submission_rev_05102012.pdf. Accessed 11 June 2014.
- World Health Organization (WHO). (1994). International programme on chemical safety. Environmental Health Criteria 162—Brominated diphenyl ethers.Google Scholar
- Wu, J. P., Luo, X. J., Zhang, Y., Luo, Y., Chen, S. J., Mai, B. X., et al. (2008). Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in wild aquatic species from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in South China. Environment International, 34, 1109–1113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yu, Y.-X., Pang, Y.-P., Li, C., Li, J.-L., Zhang, X.-Y., Yu, Z.-Q., et al. (2012). Concentrations and seasonal variations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in in- and out-house dust and human daily intake via dust ingestion corrected with bioaccessibility of PBDEs. Environment International, 42, 124–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar