Annual ambient atmospheric mercury speciation measurement from Longjing, a rural site in Taiwan
- 156 Downloads
The main purpose of this study was to monitor ambient air particulates and mercury species [RGM, Hg(p), GEM and total mercury] concentrations and dry depositions over rural area at Longjing in central Taiwan during October 2014 to September 2015. In addition, passive air sampler and knife-edge surrogate surface samplers were used to collect the ambient air mercury species concentrations and dry depositions, respectively, in this study. Moreover, direct mercury analyzer was directly used to detect the mercury Hg(p) and RGM concentrations. The result indicated that: (1) The average highest RGM, Hg(p), GEM and total mercury concentrations, and dry depositions were observed in January, prevailing dust storm occurred in winter season was the possible major reason responsible for the above findings. (2) The highest average RGM, Hg(p), GEM and total mercury concentrations, dry depositions and velocities were occurred in winter. This is because that China is the largest atmospheric mercury (Hg) emitter in the world. Its Hg emissions and environmental impacts need to be evaluated. (3) The results indicated that the total mercury ratios of Kaohsiung to that of this study were 5.61. This is because that Kaohsiung has the largest industry density (~60 %) in Taiwan. (4) the USA showed average lower mercury species concentrations when compared to those of the other world countries. The average ratios of China/USA values were 89, 76 and 160 for total mercury, RGM and Hg(p), respectively, during the years of 2000–2012.
KeywordsReactive gaseous mercury Particulate-bound mercury Total gaseous mercury Direct mercury analyzer
The authors gratefully acknowledge the National Science Council of ROC (Taiwan) for financial support under project No. NSC 104-2632-E-241-001.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). (1999). Toxicological profile for mercury, Georgia.Google Scholar
- Draxler, R. R. (1999). HYSPLIT4 user’s guide. NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL ARL-230, NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, Silver Spring, MD.Google Scholar
- Fang, G. C., Cheng, M. T., & Chang, C. N. (1997). Monitoring and modeling the mass, heavy metal and ion species dry deposition in central Taiwan. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, A32(8), 2183–2199.Google Scholar
- Gabriel, M. C., Williamson, D. G., Brooks, S., & Lindberg, S. (2005). Atmospheric speciation of mercury in two contrasting Southeastern US airsheds. Atmospheric Environment, 39, 4947–4958.Google Scholar
- Gavilan-García, I. C., Fernandez-Villagomez, G., Gavilan-García, A., & Alcantara-Concepcion, V. (2015). Alternatives of management and disposal for mercury thermometers at the end of their life from Mexican health care institutions. Journal of Cleaner Production, 86, 118–124.Google Scholar
- Jen, Y. H., Yuan, C. S., Hung, C. H., Ie, I. R., & Tsai, C. M. (2013). Tempospatial variation and partition of atmospheric mercury during wet and dry seasons at sensitivity sites within a heavily polluted industrial city. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 13(13–23), 2013.Google Scholar
- Kock, H. H., Bieber, E., Ebinghaus, R., Spain, T. G., & Thees, B. (2005). Comparison of long-term trends and seasonal variations of atmospheric mercury concentrations at the two European coastal monitoring stations Mace Head, Ireland, and Zingst, Germany. Atmospheric Environment, 39, 7549–7556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Li, X., & Zhang, H. (2012). Seasonal variations in dust concentration and dust emission observed over Horqin Sandy Land area in China from December 2010 to November 2011. Atmospheric Environment, 61, 51–65.Google Scholar
- United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). (2002). Global mercury assessment. Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
- United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). (2013). Global mercury assessment 2013: Sources, emissions, releases, and environmental transport. Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
- United Nations Environment Programme. (UNEP). (2013). Technical background report for the global Hg assessment (Geneva).Google Scholar