Environmental Geochemistry and Health

, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp 751–758 | Cite as

Excessive fluoride consumption increases haematological alteration in subjects with iron deficiency, thalassaemia, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency

  • Sakorn PornprasertEmail author
  • Phenphichar Wanachantararak
  • Fahsai Kantawong
  • Supoj Chamnanprai
  • Chatpat Kongpan
  • Nattasit Pienthai
  • Jintana Yanola
  • Suwit Duangmano
  • Mujalin Prasannarong
Original Paper


Excessive fluoride consumption leads to accelerated red blood cell death and anaemia. Whether that increases the haematological alteration in subjects with haematological disorders (iron deficiency, thalassaemia, and G-6-PD deficiency) is still unclear. The fluoride in serum and urine and haematological parameters of students at Mae Tuen School (fluoride endemic area) were analysed and compared to those of students at Baan Yang Poa and Baan Mai Schools (control areas). Iron deficiency, thalassaemia, and G-6-PD deficiency were also diagnosed in these students. The students at Mae Tuen School had significantly (P < 0.001) higher levels of mean fluoride in the serum and urine than those in control areas. In both control and fluoride endemic areas, students with haematological disorders had significantly lower levels of Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, and MCHC than those without haematological disorders. Moreover, the lowest levels of Hb, MCH, and MCHC were observed in the students with haematological disorders who live in the fluoride endemic area. Thus, the excessive fluoride consumption increased haematological alteration in subjects with iron deficiency, thalassaemia, and G-6-PD deficiency and that may increase the risk of anaemia in these subjects.


Anaemia Fluoride G-6-PD deficiency Iron deficiency Thalassaemia 



The authors thank all students who participated in this study. We gratefully appreciate the help and assistance of Associate Professor Khunchai Ratanastien, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University and all staff at Baan Yang Poa, Baan Mai and Mae Tuen Schools, Omkoi District, Chiang Mai, Thailand. The authors wish to thank Dr. M. Kevin O Carroll, Professor Emeritus of the University of Mississippi School of Dentistry, USA and Faculty Consultant at Chiang Mai University Faculty of Dentistry, Thailand, for his assistance in the preparation of the manuscript. This study was supported by grants from the Chiang Mai University and the Intercountry Centre for Oral Health, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors report that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sakorn Pornprasert
    • 1
    Email author
  • Phenphichar Wanachantararak
    • 2
  • Fahsai Kantawong
    • 1
  • Supoj Chamnanprai
    • 3
  • Chatpat Kongpan
    • 3
  • Nattasit Pienthai
    • 1
  • Jintana Yanola
    • 1
  • Suwit Duangmano
    • 1
  • Mujalin Prasannarong
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Medical Technology, Faculty of Associated Medical SciencesChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand
  2. 2.The Dental Research Center, Faculty of DentistryChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand
  3. 3.Intercountry Centre for Oral HealthChiang MaiThailand
  4. 4.Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical SciencesChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand

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