Environmental Geochemistry and Health

, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp 739–750 | Cite as

Characteristics of PM2.5, CO2 and particle-number concentration in mass transit railway carriages in Hong Kong

Original Paper

Abstract

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels, carbon dioxide (CO2) levels and particle-number concentrations (PNC) were monitored in train carriages on seven routes of the mass transit railway in Hong Kong between March and May 2014, using real-time monitoring instruments. The 8-h average PM2.5 levels in carriages on the seven routes ranged from 24.1 to 49.8 µg/m3, higher than levels in Finland and similar to those in New York, and in most cases exceeding the standard set by the World Health Organisation (25 µg/m3). The CO2 concentration ranged from 714 to 1801 ppm on four of the routes, generally exceeding indoor air quality guidelines (1000 ppm over 8 h) and reaching levels as high as those in Beijing. PNC ranged from 1506 to 11,570 particles/cm3, lower than readings in Sydney and higher than readings in Taipei. Correlation analysis indicated that the number of passengers in a given carriage did not affect the PM2.5 concentration or PNC in the carriage. However, a significant positive correlation (p < 0.001, R2 = 0.834) was observed between passenger numbers and CO2 levels, with each passenger contributing approximately 7.7–9.8 ppm of CO2. The real-time measurements of PM2.5 and PNC varied considerably, rising when carriage doors opened on arrival at a station and when passengers inside the carriage were more active. This suggests that air pollutants outside the train and passenger movements may contribute to PM2.5 levels and PNC. Assessment of the risk associated with PM2.5 exposure revealed that children are most severely affected by PM2.5 pollution, followed in order by juveniles, adults and the elderly. In addition, females were found to be more vulnerable to PM2.5 pollution than males (p < 0.001), and different subway lines were associated with different levels of risk.

Keywords

CO2 PM2.5 Particle-number concentration (PNC) Mass transit railway (MTR) Hong Kong 

References

  1. Aarnio, P., Tarja, Y. T., Anu, K., Timo, M., Anne, H., Kaarle, H., et al. (2005). The concentrations and composition of and exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) in the Helsinki subway system. Atmospheric Environment, 39(28), 5059–5066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abt, E., Suh, H. H., Catalano, P., & Koutrakis, P. (2000). Relative contribution of outdoor and indoor particle sources to indoor concentrations. Environmental Science and Technology, 34(17), 3579–3587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alfaro-Moreno, E., Nawrot, T. S., Nemmar, A., & Nemery, B. (2007). Particulate matter in the environment: pulmonary and cardiovascular effects. Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, 13(2), 98–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boldo, E., Medina, S., LeTertre, A., Hurley, F., Mücke, H. G., Ballester, F., & Aguilera, I. (2006). Apheis: Health impact assessment of long-term exposure to PM2.5 in 23 European cities. European Journal of Epidemiology, 21(6), 449–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brochu, P., Brodeur, J., & Krishnan, K. (2011). Derivation of physiological inhalation rates in children, adults, and elderly based on nighttime and daytime respiratory parameters. Inhalation Toxicology, 23(2), 74–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chan, L. Y., Lau, W. L., Lee, S. C., & Chan, C. Y. (2002a). Commuter exposure to particulate matter in public transportation modes in Hong Kong. Atmospheric Environment, 36(21), 3363–3373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chan, L. Y., Lau, W. L., Zou, S. C., Cao, Z. X., & Lai, S. C. (2002b). Exposure level of carbon monoxide and respirable suspended particulate in public transportation modes while commuting in urban area of Guangzhou, China. Atmospheric Environment, 36(38), 5831–5840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cheng, Y. H., Lin, Y. L., & Liu, C. C. (2008). Levels of PM10 and PM2.5 in Taipei rapid transit system. Atmospheric Environment, 42, 7242–7249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cheng, Y. H., Liu, C. C., & Lin, Y. L. (2009). Levels of ultrafine particles in the Taipei rapid transit system. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 14(7), 479–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cheng, Y. H., Liu, Z. S., & Yan, J. W. (2012). Comparisons of PM10, PM2.5, particle number and CO2 levels inside Metro trains traveling in underground tunnels and on elevated tracks. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 12(5), 879–891.Google Scholar
  11. Cheng, Y. H., & Yan, J. W. (2011). Comparisons of particulate matter, CO, and CO2 levels in underground and ground-level stations in the Taipei mass rapid transit system. Atmospheric Environment, 45(28), 4882–4891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. CSDHK (Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong). (2015). Women and Men in Hong Kong: Key Statistics (Statistical Reports). http://www.statistics.gov.hk/pub/B11303032015AN15B0100.pdf.
  13. Fang, G. C., & Chang, S. C. (2010). Atmospheric particulate (PM10 and PM2.5) mass concentration and seasonal variation study in the Taiwan area during 2000–2008. Atmospheric Research, 98(2–4), 368–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gómez-Perales, J. E., Colvile, R. N., Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J., Fernández-Bremauntz, A., Gutiérrez-Avedoy, V. J., Páramo-Figueroa, V. H., et al. (2004). Commuters’ exposure to PM2.5, CO, and benzene in public transport in the metropolitan area of Mexico City. Atmospheric Environment, 38(8), 1219–1229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gustafsson, M., Blomqvist, G., Swietlicki, E., Dahl, A., & Gudmundsson, A. (2012). Inhalable railroad particles at ground level and subterranean stations-Physical and chemical properties and relation to train traffic. Transportation Research Part D, 17(3), 277–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Halonen, J. I., Lanki, T., Yli-Tuomi, T., Tiittanen, P., Kulmala, M., & Pekkanen, J. (2009). Particulate air pollution and acute cardiorespiratory hospital admissions and mortality among the elderly. Epidemiology, 20(1), 143–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Harrison, R. M., Thornton, C. A., Lawrence, R. G., Mark, D., Kinnersley, R. P., & Ayres, J. G. (2002). Personal exposure monitoring of particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide, including susceptible groups. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 59(10), 671–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Havas, M., Shum, S., Dhalla, R. (2004). Passenger exposure to magnetic fields on go trains and on buses, streetcars, and subways run by the Toronto transit commission, Toronto, Canada, Biological Effects of EMFs, 3rd International Workshop, Kos, Greece 4–8 October 2004, 1065–1071.Google Scholar
  19. Hsu, D. J., & Huang, H. L. (2009). Concentrations of volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and particulate matter in buses on highways in Taiwan. Atmospheric Environment, 43(36), 5723–5730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Huang, H. L., & Hsu, D. J. (2009). Exposure levels of particulate matter in long-distance buses in Taiwan. Indoor Air, 19(3), 234–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jantunen, M., Hänninen, O., Koistinen, K., & Hashim, J. H. (2002). Fine PM measurements: Personal and indoor air monitoring. Chemosphere, 49(9), 993–1007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jung, H. J., Kim, B. W., Ryu, J. Y., Maskey, S., Kim, J. C., Sohn, J., & Ro, C. U. (2010). Source identification of particulate matter collected at underground subway stations in Seoul, Korea using quantitative single-particle analysis. Atmospheric Environment, 44(19), 2287–2293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kam, W., Cheung, K., Daher, N., & Sioutas, C. (2011). Particulate matter (PM) concentrations in underground and ground-level rail systems of the Los Angeles Metro. Atmospheric Environment, 45(8), 1506–1516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kim, K. Y., Kim, Y. S., Roh, Y. M., Lee, C. M., & Kim, C. N. (2008). Spatial distribution of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in Seoul metropolitan subway stations. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 154(1–3), 440–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Klepczyńska-Nyström, A., Larsson, B. M., Grunewald, J., Pousette, C., Lundin, A., Eklund, A., & Svartengren, M. (2012). Health effects of a subway environment in mild asthmatic volunteers. Respiratory Medicine, 106(1), 25–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Knibbs, L. D., & deDear, R. J. (2010). Exposure to ultrafine particles and PM2.5 in four Sydney transport modes. Atmospheric Environment, 44(26), 3224–3227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kwon, S. B., Cho, Y., Park, D., & Park, E. Y. (2008). Study on the indoor air quality of Seoul metropolitan subway during the rush hour. Indoor and Built Environment, 17(4), 361–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lau, W. L., & Chan, L. Y. (2003). Commuter exposure to aromatic VOCs in public transportation modes in Hong Kong. Science of the Total Environment, 308(1–3), 143–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Li, T. T., Bai, Y. H., Liu, Z. R., & Li, J. L. (2007). In-train air quality assessment of the railway transit system in Beijing: A note. Transportation Research Part D, 12(1), 64–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Li, T. T., Bai, Y. H., Liu, Z. R., Liu, J. F., Zhang, G. S., & Li, J. L. (2006). Air quality in passenger cars of the ground railway transit system in Beijing, China. Science of the Total Environment, 367(1), 89–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Linn, W. S., Szlachcic, Y., Gong, H., Kinney, P. L., & Berhane, K. T. (2000). Air pollution and daily hospital admissions in metropolitan Los Angeles. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(5), 427–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Long, C. M., Suh, H. H., & Koutrakis, P. (2000). Characterization of indoor particle sources using continuous mass and size monitors. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 50(7), 1236–1250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Matson, U., Ekberg, L. E., & Afshari, A. (2004). Measurement of ultrafine particles: A comparison of two handheld condensation particle counters. Aerosol Science and Technology, 38(5), 487–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. McNamara, M. L., Noonan, C. W., & Ward, T. J. (2011). Correction factor for continuous monitoring of wood smoke fine particulate matter. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 11(3), 315–322.Google Scholar
  35. Meng, Q. Y., Turpin, B. J., Korn, L., Weisel, C. P., Morandi, M., Colome, S., et al. (2005). Influence of ambient (outdoor) sources on residential indoor and personal PM2.5 concentrations: analyses of RIOPA data. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, 15, 17–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Morawska, L., Keogh, D. U., Thomas, S. B., & Mengersen, K. (2008). Modality in ambient particle size distributions and its potential as a basis for developing air quality regulation. Atmospheric Environment, 42(7), 1617–1628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mugica-Álvarez, V., Figueroa-Lara, J., Romero-Romo, M., Sepúlveda-Sánchez, J., & López-Moreno, T. (2012). Concentrations and properties of airborne particles in the Mexico City subway system. Atmospheric Environment, 49, 284–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nasir, Z. A., & Colbeck, I. (2009). Particulate air pollution in transport micro-environments. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 11(6), 1140–1146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Oberdörster, G., Sharp, Z., Atudorei, V., Elder, A., Gelein, R., Lunts, A., et al. (2002). Extrapulmonary translocation of ultrafine carbon particles following whole-body inhalation exposure of rats. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A, 65(20), 1531–1543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Park, D. U., & Ha, K. C. (2008). Characteristics of PM10, PM2.5, CO2 and CO monitored in interiors and platforms of subway train in Seoul, Korea. Environment International, 34(5), 629–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pope III, C. A., Burnett, R. T., Thurston, G. D., Thun, M. J., Calle, E. E., Krewski, D., & Godleski, J. J. (2004). Cardiovascular mortality and long-term exposure to particulate air pollution: epidemiological evidence of general pathophysiological pathways of disease. Circulation, 109, 171–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Querol, X., Moreno, T., Karanasiou, A., Reche, C., Alastuey, A., Viana, M., et al. (2012). Variability of levels and composition of PM10 and PM2.5 in the Barcelona metro system. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12(11), 5055–5076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Raut, J. C., Chazette, P., & Fortain, A. (2009). Link between aerosol optical, microphysical and chemical measurements in an underground railway station in Paris. Atmospheric Environment, 43(4), 860–868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Seaton, A., Cherrie, J., Dennekamp, M., Donaldson, K., Hurley, J. F., & Tran, C. L. (2005). The London Underground: Dust and hazards to health. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 62(6), 355–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Son, Y. S., Salama, A., Jeong, H. S., Kim, S., Jeong, J. H., Lee, J., et al. (2013). The effect of platform screen doors on PM10 levels in a subway station and a trial to reduce PM10 in tunnels. Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment, 7(1), 38–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tsai, D. H., Wu, Y. H., & Chan, C. C. (2008). Comparisons of commuter’s exposure to particulate matters while using different transportation modes. Science of the Total Environment, 405(1–3), 71–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. USEPA. (2004). Air quality criteria for particulate matter (Final Report, Oct 2004), EPA 600/P-99/002aF-bF. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
  48. USEPA. (2005). Guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment, EPA/630/P-03/001F. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
  49. Wang, X., & Gao, H. O. (2011). Exposure to fine particle mass and number concentrations in urban transportation environments of New York City. Transportation Research Part D, 16(5), 384–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Yanosky, J. D., Williams, P. L., & Maclntosh, D. L. (2002). A comparison of two direct-reading aerosol monitors with the federal reference method for PM2.5 in indoor air. Atmospheric Environment, 36(1), 107–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hai-Long Zheng
    • 1
  • Wen-Jing Deng
    • 1
  • Yan Cheng
    • 2
  • Wei Guo
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Science and Environmental StudiesThe Education University of Hong KongTai Po, Hong KongChina
  2. 2.School of Human Settlements and Civil EngineeringXi’an Jiaotong UniversityXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations