Chinese population exposure to triclosan and triclocarban as measured via human urine and nails
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Triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) exposures are highly concerned due to their suspected endocrine-disrupting effects. The present study investigated TCS and TCC exposure levels in the general Chinese population by biomonitoring human urine and nail samples. TCS (69–80 %) and TCC (99–100 %) were frequently detected, which demonstrates that the general Chinese population has extensive exposure to these chemicals. The geometric mean (GM) urinary concentrations were 0.40 μg/g creatinine (creat), 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.30–0.56, for TCS and 0.40 μg/g creat, 95 % CI 0.29–0.56, for TCC. On the other hand, the GM levels of TCS and TCC were 13.57 (5.67 μg/kg) and 84.66 μg/kg (41.50 μg/kg) in fingernail (toenail) samples, respectively, indicating that the levels in fingernails were approximately twice as high as those in toenails. Pearson’s correlation coefficients between the urine and fingernail (toenail) samples were 0.715 (0.614) for TCS and 0.829 (0.812) for TCC. These data suggest that nail samples can be applied to the biomonitoring for TCS and TCC in the general population. We observed that the levels of both chemicals were higher in females than in males for urine and fingernail samples, but no significant differences were found between different genders for either compound in toenails. Nineteen- to 29-year-olds had the highest TCS levels in their nail samples, whereas TCC levels did not differ with regard to age. Region of residence significantly influenced TCS and TCC concentrations in the three biological matrices measured.
KeywordsTriclosan Triclocarban Urine Nail Biomonitoring Exposure
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