Risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in smaller than 100-μm street dust particles from a valley-city in northwestern China
- 297 Downloads
Concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTEs As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, Zn and Mo) in smaller than 100-μm street dust particles from Xining, a typical valley-city in northwestern China, were determined using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and their potential risks to local ecosystem and human health were assessed using potential ecological risk index and health risk model. The results indicate that the concentration of As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, Zn and Mo in the smaller than 100-μm street dust particles from Xining ranges from 0.8 to 11.1, 339.4 to 767.7, 27.2 to 110.2, 185.7 to 5134.5, 15.1 to 115.2, 150.1 to 623.5, 16.8 to 74.1, 24.4 to 233.0, 169.9 to 475.7, 47.4 to 96.8, 33.1 to 231.1 and 0.2 to 4.3 mg kg−1, with an arithmetic mean of 3.6, 415.6, 50.1, 573.0, 40.6, 409.1, 22.6, 52.7, 257.8, 57.1, 108.6 and 2.5 mg kg−1, respectively. Compared to the background value of local soil, the smaller than 100-μm street dust particles from Xining have elevated concentrations of Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Sr and Mo. The contamination levels of Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Sr and Mo are higher than As, Mn, Ni and V. The comprehensive potential ecological risk levels of PTEs were moderate to considerable. The non-carcinogenic risks of PTEs studied on children and adults due to dust exposure are limited except for Cr to children. Cr in the dust may pose a potential health risk to children; this should draw more attention.
KeywordsDust Toxic metal Ecological risk Health risk Ingestion
The research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China through Grant 41271510 and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central University through Grants GK201305008. We thank Xue Xu, Mengmeng Zhang, Xiang Ding and Tingting Feng for their help with the experiments. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for their insightful suggestions and critical reviews of the manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- CNEMC (China National Environmental Monitoring, Centre). (1990). The background values of Qinghai soils, Environmental Science Press of China, Beijing (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Håkanson, L. (1980). An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control. A sedimentological approach. Water Research, 14, 975–1001.Google Scholar
- Suresh, G., Sutharsan, P., Ramasamy, V., & Venkatachalapathy, R. (2012). Assessment of spatial distribution and potential ecological risk of the heavy metals in relation to granulometric contents of Veeranam lake sediments, India. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 84, 117–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- USDOE. (2011). The risk assessment information system. US Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO).Google Scholar
- USEPA (1989). Risk assessment guidance for superfund. In: Human Evaluation Manual, vol. I. EPA/540/1-89/002. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington.Google Scholar
- USEPA. (2001). Supplemental guidance for developing soil screening levels for superfund sites. OSWER 9355.4-24. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington.Google Scholar
- Van den Berg, R. (1995). Human exposure to soil contamination: A qualitative and quantitative analysis towards proposals for human toxicological intervention values. RIVM Report no. 725201011. National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM). Bilthoven, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
- WHO. (2006). World health report. World Health Organization.Google Scholar
- Xu, X., Lu, X. W., Han, X. F., & Zhao, N. (2015). Ecological and health risk assessment of metal in resuspended particles of urban street dust from an industrial city in China. Current Science, 108, 72–79.Google Scholar
- Xu, Z. Q., Ni, S. J., Tuo, X. G., & Zhang, C. J. (2008). Calculation of heavy metals’ toxicity coefficient in the evaluation of potential ecological risk index. Environmental Science and Technology, 31, 112–115. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Yuan, G. L., Sun, T. H., Han, P., Li, J., & Lang, X. X. (2014). Source identification and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in topsoil using environmental geochemical mapping: Typical urban renewal area in Beijing, China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 136, 40–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yuen, J. Q., Olin, P. H., Lim, H. S., Benner, S. G., Sutherland, R. A., & Ziegler, A. D. (2012). Accumulation of potentially toxic elements in road deposited sediments in residential and light industrial neighborhoods of Singapore. Journal of Environmental Management, 101, 151–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhao, Q., Wang, Y., Cao, Y., Chen, A., Ren, M., Ge, Y., et al. (2014). Potential health risks of heavy metals in cultivated topsoil and grain, including correlations with human primary liver, lung and gastric cancer, in Anhui province, Eastern China. Science of the Total Environment, 470–471, 340–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar