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Environmental Geochemistry and Health

, Volume 36, Issue 5, pp 987–994 | Cite as

Platinum in PM2.5 of the metropolitan area of Mexico City

  • Ofelia Morton-BermeaEmail author
  • Omar Amador-Muñoz
  • Lida Martínez-Trejo
  • Elizabeth Hernández-Álvarez
  • Laura Beramendi-Orosco
  • María Elena García-Arreola
Original Paper

Abstract

The increase in platinum (Pt) in the airborne particulate matter with size ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) in urban environments may be interpreted as result of the abrasion and deterioration of automobile catalyst. Nowadays, about four million vehicles in Mexico City use catalytic converters, which means that their impact should be considered. In order to evaluate the contribution of Pt to environmental pollution of the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC), airborne PM2.5 was collected at five different sites in the urban area (NW, NE, C, SW, SE) in 2011 during April (dry-warm season), August (rainy season) and December (dry-cold season). Analytical determinations were carried out using a ICP-MS with a collision cell and kinetic energy discrimination. The analytical and instrument performance was evaluated with standard road dust reference material (BCR-723). Median Pt concentration in the analyzed particulate was is 38.4 pg m−3 (minimal value 1 pg m−3 maximal value 79 pg m−3). Obtained Pt concentrations are higher than those reported for other urban areas. Spatial variation shows that SW had Pt concentration significantly higher than NW and C only. Seasonal variation shows that Pt median was higher in rainy season than in both dry seasons. A comparison of these results with previously reported data of PM10 from 1991 and 2003 in the same studied area shows a worrying increase in the concentration of Pt in the air environment of MAMC.

Keywords

Platinum PM2.5 Urban pollution Catalytic converters Mexico City 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was performed with financial support from DGAPA (Dirección General de Personal académico, UNAM) project IN101612 and CONACyT (Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología) Project 166295.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ofelia Morton-Bermea
    • 1
    Email author
  • Omar Amador-Muñoz
    • 2
  • Lida Martínez-Trejo
    • 4
  • Elizabeth Hernández-Álvarez
    • 1
  • Laura Beramendi-Orosco
    • 3
  • María Elena García-Arreola
    • 5
  1. 1.Instituto de GeofísicaUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoMexicoMexico
  2. 2.Centro de Ciencias de la AtmósferaUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoMexicoMexico
  3. 3.Instituto de GeologíaUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoMexicoMexico
  4. 4.Facultad de QuímicaUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoMexicoMexico
  5. 5.Instituto de GeologíaUniversidad Autónoma de San Luis PotosíSan Luis Potosí, SLP MexicoMexico

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