Environmental Geochemistry and Health

, Volume 35, Issue 4, pp 419–430

Geologic occurrences of erionite in the United States: an emerging national public health concern for respiratory disease

  • Bradley S. Van Gosen
  • Thomas A. Blitz
  • Geoffrey S. Plumlee
  • Gregory P. Meeker
  • M. Patrick Pierson
Original Paper

Abstract

Erionite, a mineral series within the zeolite group, is classified as a Group 1 known respiratory carcinogen. This designation resulted from extremely high incidences of mesothelioma discovered in three small villages from the Cappadocia region of Turkey, where the disease was linked to environmental exposures to fibrous forms of erionite. Natural deposits of erionite, including fibrous forms, have been identified in the past in the western United States. Until recently, these occurrences have generally been overlooked as a potential hazard. In the last several years, concerns have emerged regarding the potential for environmental and occupational exposures to erionite in the United States, such as erionite-bearing gravels in western North Dakota mined and used to surface unpaved roads. As a result, there has been much interest in identifying locations and geologic environments across the United States where erionite occurs naturally. A 1996 U.S. Geological Survey report describing erionite occurrences in the United States has been widely cited as a compilation of all US erionite deposits; however, this compilation only focused on one of several geologic environments in which erionite can form. Also, new occurrences of erionite have been identified in recent years. Using a detailed literature survey, this paper updates and expands the erionite occurrences database, provided in a supplemental file (US_erionite.xls). Epidemiology, public health, and natural hazard studies can incorporate this information on known erionite occurrences and their characteristics. By recognizing that only specific geologic settings and formations are hosts to erionite, this knowledge can be used in developing management plans designed to protect the public.

Keywords

Erionite Fibrous Carcinogen United States Environmental Occurrences 

Supplementary material

10653_2012_9504_MOESM1_ESM.xls (86 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLS 86 kb)
10653_2012_9504_MOESM2_ESM.xls (62 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (XLS 63 kb)

References

  1. Adamis, Z., Tátrai, E., Honma, K., Six, E., & Ungváry, G. (2000). In vitro and in vivo tests for determination of the pathogenicity of quartz, diatomaceous earth, mordenite and clinoptilolite. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 44(1), 67–74.Google Scholar
  2. Armbruster, T., & Gunter, M.E. (2001). Crystal structures of natural zeolites. In D.L. Bish, & D.W. Ming (Eds.), Natural zeolitesOccurrence, properties, applications (pp. 1–67). Washington, DC: The Mineralogical Society of America, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 45.Google Scholar
  3. Artvinli, M. M., & Bariş, Y. I. (1979). Malignant mesotheliomas in a small village in the Anatolian region of Turkey—an epidemiologic study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 63(1), 17–22.Google Scholar
  4. Aust, A. E., Cook, P. M., & Dodson, R. F. (2011). Morphological and chemical mechanisms of elongated mineral particle toxicities. Journal of Toxicology & Environmental Health Part B: Critical Reviews, 14(1–4), 40–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ball, E. (2011). NIEHS workshop tackles erionite-linked disease risk. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Environmental Factor, November 2011. http://www.niehs.nih.gov/news/newsletter/2011/november/science-erionite/index.cfm. Accessed 5 June 2012.
  6. Ballirano, P., Andreozzi, G. B., Dogan, M., & Dogan, A. U. (2009). Crystal structure and iron topochemistry of erionite-K from Rome, Oregon, USA. American Mineralogist, 94(8–9), 1262–1270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bargar, K. E., & Beeson, M. H. (1981). Hydrothermal alteration in research drill hole Y-2, Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park Wyoming. American Mineralogist, 66(5–6), 473–490.Google Scholar
  8. Bargar, K.E., & Keith, T.E.C. (1995). Calcium zeolites in rhyolitic drill cores from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. In D.W. Ming, & F.A. Mumpton, F.A. (Eds.), Natural zeolites ‘93Occurrence, properties, use (pp. 69–86). Brockport, New York: International Committee on Natural Zeolites.Google Scholar
  9. Bargar, K. E., Beeson, M. H., & Keith, T. E. C. (1981). Zeolites in Yellowstone National Park. Mineralogical Record, 12(1), 29–38.Google Scholar
  10. Bariş, Y. I., & Grandjean, P. P. (2006). Prospective study of mesothelioma mortality in Turkish villages with exposure to fibrous zeolite. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 98(6), 414–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bariş, Y. I., Sahin, A. A., Ozesmi, M. M., Kerse, I. I., Ozen, E. E., Kolcan, B. B., et al. (1978). An outbreak of pleural mesothelioma and chronic fibrosing pleurisy in the village of Karain/Urgüp in Anatolia. Thorax, 33(2), 181–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bariş, I., Simonato, L., Artvinli, M., Pooley, F., Saracci, R., Skidmore, J., et al. (1987). Epidemiological and environmental evidence of the health effects of exposure to erionite fibers—a four-year study in the Cappadocian region of Turkey. International Journal of Cancer, 39(1), 10–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bish, D. L., & Chipera, S. J. (1991). Detection of trace amounts of erionite using X-ray powder diffraction—Erionite in tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and central Turkey. Clays and Clay Minerals, 39(4), 437–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carbone, M., Emri, S., Dogan, U., Steele, I., Tuncer, M., Pass, H. I., et al. (2007). A mesothelioma epidemic in Cappadocia—scientific developments and unexpected social outcomes. Nature Reviews Cancer, 7, 147–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carbone, M., Bariş, Y. I., Bertino, P., Brass, B., Comertpay, S., Dogan, A. U., et al. (2011). Erionite exposure in North Dakota and Turkish villages with mesothelioma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(33), 13618–13623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chipera, S.J., & Bish, D.L. (1989). The occurrence and distribution of erionite at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Los Alamos National Laboratory Report LA-11663-MS, p. 20.Google Scholar
  17. Coffin, D. L., Cook, P. M., & Creason, J. P. (1992). Relative mesothelioma induction in rats by mineral fibers—comparison with residual pulmonary mineral fiber number and epidemiology. Inhalation Toxicology, 4(3), 273–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Deffeyes, K. S. (1959). Erionite from Cenozoic tuffaceous sediments, central Nevada. American Mineralogist, 44(5–6), 501–509.Google Scholar
  19. Dogan, A. U., & Dogan, M. (2008). Re-evaluation and re-classification of erionite series minerals. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 30(4), 355–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dogan, A. U., Dogan, M., & Emri, S. (2005). Erionite. In P. Wexler (Ed.), Encyclopedia of toxicology (2nd ed., pp. 237–241). Oxford: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dogan, A. U., Baris, Y. I., Dogan, M. M., Emri, S. S., Steele, I. I., Elmishad, A. G., et al. (2006). Genetic predisposition to fiber carcinogenesis causes a mesothelioma epidemic in Turkey. Cancer Research, 66(10), 5063–5068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dogan, A. U., Dogan, M., & Hoskins, J. A. (2008). Erionite series minerals—mineralogical and carcinogenic properties. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 30(4), 367–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Eakle, A. S. (1898). Erionite—a new zeolite. American Journal of Science, Fourth Series, 6(31), 66–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fach, E., Kristovich, R., Long, J. F., Waldman, W. J., Dutta, P. K., & Williams, M. V. (2003). The effect of iron on the biological activities of erionite and mordenite. Environment International, 29(4), 451–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Forsman, N. F. (2006). Erionite in tuffs of North Dakota—the need for erionite hazard maps. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, 38(7), 366.Google Scholar
  26. Gude, A. J., 3rd, & Sheppard, R. A. (1981). Woolly erionite from the Reese River zeolite deposit, Lander County, Nevada, and its relationship to other erionites. Clays and Clay Minerals, 29(5), 378–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gude, A.J., 3rd, & Sheppard, R.A. (1986). Zeolitic diagenesis of tuffs in an upper Miocene lacustrine deposit near Durkee, Baker County, Oregon. In F.A. Mumpton (Ed.), Studies in diagenesis (pp. 301–333). U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1578.Google Scholar
  28. Gude, A.J., 3rd, & Sheppard, R.A. (1988). A zeolitic tuff in a lacustrine facies of the Gila Conglomerate near Buckhorn, Grant County, New Mexico. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1763, p. 22.Google Scholar
  29. Guthrie, G. D. (1992). Biological effects of inhaled minerals. American Mineralogist, 77(3–4), 225–243.Google Scholar
  30. Hay, R.L., & Sheppard, R.A. (2001). Occurrence of zeolites in sedimentary rocks—an overview. D.L. Bish, & D.W. Ming (Eds.), Natural zeolitesOccurrence, properties, applications (pp. 217–234). Washington, DC: The Mineralogical Society of America, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 45.Google Scholar
  31. Hill, R. J., Edwards, R. E., & Carthew, P. P. (1990). Early changes in the pleural mesothelium following intrapleural inoculation of the mineral fibre erionite and the subsequent development of mesotheliomas. Journal of Experimental Pathology, 71(1), 105–118.Google Scholar
  32. International Agency for Research on Cancer. (2012). Agents classified by the IARC Monographs, Volumes 1–105. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php. Accessed 12 September 2012.
  33. Kamb, W. B., & Oke, W. C. (1960). Paulingite—a new zeolite, in association with erionite and filiform pyrite. American Mineralogist, 45(1–2), 79–91.Google Scholar
  34. Langella, A., Cappelletti, P., & dé Gennaro, M. (2001). Zeolites in closed hydrologic systems. In D.L. Bish, & D.W. Ming (Eds.), Natural zeolitesOccurrence, properties, applications (pp. 235–260). Washington, D.C.: The Mineralogical Society of America, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 45.Google Scholar
  35. Larsen, D., & Crossey, L.J. (2000). Sedimentary petrology and authigenic mineral distributions in the Oligocene Creede Formation, Colorado, United States. In P.M. Bethke & R.L. Hay (Eds.), Ancient Lake CreedeIts volcano-tectonic setting, history of sedimentation, and relation to mineralization in the Creede Mining District (pp. 179–208). Geological Society of America Special Paper 346.Google Scholar
  36. Lowers, H.A., Adams, D.T., Meeker, G.P., & Nutt, C.J. (2010). Chemical and morphological comparison of erionite from Oregon, North Dakota, and Turkey. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 20101286, 13 p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1286/. Accessed 6 June 2012.
  37. North Dakota Department of Health (2012). Erionite. North Dakota Department of Health. http://www.ndhealth.gov/EHS/Erionite/. Accessed 6 June 2012.
  38. Passaglia, E., & Sheppard, R.A. (2001). The crystal chemistry of zeolites. In D.L. Bish, & D.W. Ming (Eds.), Natural zeolitesOccurrence, properties, applications (p. 69–116). Washington, D.C.: The Mineralogical Society of America, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 45.Google Scholar
  39. Pratt, S. E. (2012). Dangerous dust. Earth, 57(2), 36–43.Google Scholar
  40. Ryan, P. H., Dihle, M., Griffin, S., Partridge, C., Hilbert, T. J., Taylor, R., et al. (2011). Erionite in road gravel associated with interstitial and pleural changes—an occupational hazard in western United States. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 53(8), 893–899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Shedd, K.B., Virta, R.L., & Wylie, A.G. (1982). Size and shape characterization of fibrous zeolites by electron microscopy. U.S. Bureau of Mines Report of Investigations RI 8674, p. 20.Google Scholar
  42. Sheppard, R.A. (1991). Zeolitic diagenesis of tuffs in the Miocene Chalk Hills Formation, western Snake River Plain, Idaho. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1963, p. 27.Google Scholar
  43. Sheppard, R.A. (1994). Zeolitic diagenesis of tuffs in Miocene lacustrine rocks near Harney Lake, Harney County, Oregon. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2108, p. 28.Google Scholar
  44. Sheppard, R.A. (1996). Occurrences of erionite in sedimentary rocks of the western United States. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96018, p. 24.Google Scholar
  45. Sheppard, R. A., & Gude, A. J., 3rd. (1969). Chemical composition and physical properties of the related zeolites offretite and erionite. American Mineralogist, 54(5–6), 875–886.Google Scholar
  46. Sheppard, R. A., & Gude, A. J., 3rd. (1993). Geology and mineralogy of the Rome zeolite deposit, Rome, Oregon. In F. A. Mumpton (Ed.), Zeo-Trip ‘93—An excursion to selected zeolite and clay deposits in southeastern Oregon and southwestern Idaho, June 26–28, 1993 (pp. 59–73). Brockport: International Committee on Natural Zeolites.Google Scholar
  47. Sheppard, R.A., & Hay, R.L. (2001). Formation of zeolites in open hydrologic systems. In D.L. Bish, D.L., & D.W. Ming (Eds.), Natural zeolitesOccurrence, properties, applications (pp. 261–275). Washington, D.C.: The Mineralogical Society of America, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 45.Google Scholar
  48. Suzuki, Y., & Kohyama, N. (1984). Malignant mesothelioma induced by asbestos and zeolite in the mouse peritoneal cavity. Environmental Research, 35(1), 277–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tátrai, E., Bácsy, E., Kárpáti, J., & Ungváry, G. (1992). On the examination of the pulmonary toxicity of mordenite in rats. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 5(3), 237–243.Google Scholar
  50. Tschernich, R. W. (1992). Zeolites of the World (p. 563). Phoenix: Geoscience Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  51. Van Gosen, B. S. (2005). Reported historic asbestos mines, historic asbestos prospects, and natural asbestos occurrences in the Eastern United States. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 20051189. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/. Accessed 6 June 2012.
  52. Van Gosen, B. S. (2006). Reported historic asbestos prospects and natural asbestos occurrences in the Central United States. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 20061211. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/. Accessed 6 June 2012.
  53. Van Gosen, B. S. (2007). Reported historic asbestos mines, historic asbestos prospects, and natural asbestos occurrences in the Rocky Mountain States of the United States (Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, and Wyoming). U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 20071182. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/. Accessed 6 June 2012.
  54. Van Gosen, B. S. (2008). Reported historic asbestos mines, historic asbestos prospects, and natural asbestos occurrences in the Southwestern United States (Arizona, Nevada, and Utah). U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 20081095. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1095/. Accessed 6 June 2012.
  55. Van Gosen, B. S. (2010). Reported historic asbestos mines, historic asbestos prospects, and other natural occurrences of asbestos in Oregon and Washington. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 20101041. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1041/. Accessed 6 June 2012.
  56. Van Gosen, B. S., & Clinkenbeard, J. P. (2011). Reported historic asbestos mines, historic asbestos prospects, and other natural occurrences of asbestos in California. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 20111188, p. 22, 1 plate. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1188/. Accessed 6 June 2012.
  57. Wagner, J. C., Skidmore, J. W., Hill, R. J., & Griffiths, D. M. (1985). Erionite exposure and mesotheliomas in rats. British Journal of Cancer, 51(5), 727–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Weissman, D., & Kiefer, M. (2011). Erionite—An emerging North American hazard. NIOSH Science Blog, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. http://blogs.cdc.gov/niosh-science-blog/2011/11/erionite/. Accessed 18 Sept 2012.
  59. Wise, W. S., & Tschernich, R. W. (1976). The chemical compositions and origin of the zeolites offretite, erionite, and levyne. American Mineralogist, 61(9–10), 853–863.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht(out side the USA) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bradley S. Van Gosen
    • 1
  • Thomas A. Blitz
    • 2
  • Geoffrey S. Plumlee
    • 2
  • Gregory P. Meeker
    • 1
  • M. Patrick Pierson
    • 3
  1. 1.U.S. Geological Survey, M.S. 973DenverUSA
  2. 2.U.S. Geological Survey, M.S. 964DenverUSA
  3. 3.U.S. Forest ServiceBillingsUSA

Personalised recommendations