Environmental Geochemistry and Health

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 155–170 | Cite as

Dental fluorosis linked to degassing of Ambrym volcano, Vanuatu: a novel exposure pathway

  • Rachel Allibone
  • Shane J. Cronin
  • Douglas T. Charley
  • Vince E. Neall
  • Robert B. Stewart
  • Clive Oppenheimer
Original Paper

Abstract

Ambrym in Vanuatu is a persistently degassing island volcano whose inhabitants harvest rainwater for their potable water needs. The findings from this study indicate that dental fluorosis is prevalent in the population due to fluoride contamination of rainwater by the volcanic plume. A dental survey was undertaken of 835 children aged 6–18 years using the Dean’s Index of Fluorosis. Prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be 96% in the target area of West Ambrym, 71% in North Ambrym, and 61% in Southeast Ambrym. This spatial distribution appears to reflect the prevailing winds and rainfall patterns on the island. Severe cases were predominantly in West Ambrym, the most arid part of the island, and the most commonly affected by the volcanic plume. Over 50 km downwind, on a portion of Malakula Island, the dental fluorosis prevalence was 85%, with 36% prevalence on Tongoa Island, an area rarely affected by volcanic emissions. Drinking water samples from West Ambrym contained fluoride levels from 0.7 to 9.5 ppm F (average 4.2 ppm F, n = 158) with 99% exceeding the recommended concentration of 1.0 ppm F. The pathway of fluoride-enriched rainwater impacting upon human health as identified in this study has not previously been recognised in the aetiology of fluorosis. This is an important consideration for populations in the vicinity of degassing volcanoes, particularly where rainwater comprises the primary potable water supply for humans or animals.

Keywords

Vanuatu Fluorosis Volcanic gas Fluoride Rainwater Health 

References

  1. Aiuppa, A., Bonfanti, P., Brusca, L., D’Alessandro, W., Federico, C., & Parello, F. (2001). Evaluation of the environmental impact of volcanic emissions from the chemistry of rainwater: Mount Etna area (Sicily). Applied Geochemistry, 16, 985–1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aiuppa, A., Federico, C., Giudice, G., Gurrieri, S., Paonita, A., & Valenza, M. (2004). Plume chemistry provides insights into mechanisms of sulfur and halogen degassing in basaltic volcanoes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 222(2), 469–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akiniwa, K. (1997). Re-examination of acute toxicity of fluoride. Fluoride, 30(2), 89–104.Google Scholar
  4. Allen, A. G., Baxter, P. J., & Ottley, C. J. (2000). Gas and particle emissions from Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat, West Indies: Characterization and health hazard assessment. Bulletin of Volcanology, 62, 8–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allen, A. G., Oppenheimer, C., Ferm, M., Baxter, P. J., Horrocks, L. A., Galle, B., et al. (2002). Primary sulfate aerosol and associated emissions from Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 107(No D23), 4682.Google Scholar
  6. Aoba, T., & Fejerskov, O. (2002). Dental fluorosis: Chemistry and biology. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, 13(2), 155–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Araya, O., Wittwer, F., & Villa, A. (1993). Evolution of fluoride concentrations in cattle and grass following a volcanic eruption. Veterinary and Human Toxicology, 35, 437–440.Google Scholar
  8. Ayenew, T. (2008). The distribution and hydrogeological controls of fluoride in the groundwater of central Ethiopian rift and adjacent highlands. Environmental Geology, 54, 1313–1324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bakeo, A. C. (2000). Vanuatu national population and housing census 1999 main report. Port Vila, Vanuatu: National Statistics Office.Google Scholar
  10. Bani, P., & Lardy, M. (2007). Sulphur dioxide emission rates from Yasur volcano, Vanuatu archipelago. Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L20309. doi:10.1029/2007GL030411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bani, P., Oppenheimer, C., Tsanev, V. I., Carn, S. A., Cronin, S. J., Crimp, R., Calkins, J. A., Charley, D., & Lardy, M. (2009). Surge in sulphur and halogen degassing from Ambrym volcano, Vanuatu. Bulletin of Volcanology. doi:10.1007/s00445-009-0293-7.
  12. Baxter, P. J. (2000). Impacts of eruptions on human health. In H. Sigurdsson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of volcanoes (pp. 1035–1043). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  13. Baxter, P. J. (2005). Human impacts of volcanoes. In J. Marti & G. G. J. Ernst (Eds.), Volcanoes and the environment (pp. 273–303). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Baxter, P. J., Ing, R., Falk, H., French, J., Stein, G. F., Bernstein, R. S., et al. (1981). Mount St Helens eruptions, May 18 to June 12, 1980. Journal of the American Medical Association, 246(22), 2585–2589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Baxter, P. J., Stoiber, R. E., & Williams, S. N. (1982). Volcanic gases and health: Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. The Lancet (July 17), 150–151.Google Scholar
  16. Baxter, P. J., Tedesco, D., Miele, G., Baubron, J. C., & Cliff, K. (1990). Health hazards of volcanic gases. The Lancet, 176. Google Scholar
  17. Beaglehole, J. C. (Ed.). (1961). The voyage of the resolution and adventure 1772–1775. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Black, G. V., & McKay, F. S. (1916). Mottled teeth: An endemic developmental imperfection of the enamel of the teeth heretofore unknown in the literature of dentistry. The Dental Cosmos, LVIII(2), 129–156.Google Scholar
  19. Bogden, J. D. (2000). The essential trace elements and minerals. In J. D. Bogden & L. M. Klevay (Eds.), Clinical nutrition of the essential trace elements and minerals (pp. 3–9). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.Google Scholar
  20. Calderon, R. L. (2000). The epidemiology of chemical contaminants of drinking water. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 38, S13–S20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cerklewski, F. L. (1997). Fluoride bioavailability—nutritional and clinical aspects. Nutrition Research, 17(5), 907–929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Christova, C., Scholz, C. H., & Kao, H. (2004). Stress field in the Vanuatu (New Hebrides) Wadati-Benioff zone inferred by inversion of earthquake focal mechanisms: Evidence for systematic lateral and vertical variations of principal stresses. Journal of Geodynamics, 37, 125–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Coote, G. E., Cutress, T. W., & Suckling, G. W. (1997). Uptake of fluoride into developing teeth of sheep, following the 1995 volcanic eruption of Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 130(1–4), 571–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cornelius, R., Camara, C., Ebdon, L., Pitts, L., Sperling, M., Morabito, R., et al. (2000). The EU network on trace element speciation in full swing. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 19(2–3), 210–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cronin, S. J., Hedley, M. J., Neall, V. E., & Smith, G. (1998). Agronomic impact of tephra fallout from 1995 and 1996 Ruapehu volcano eruptions, New Zealand. Environmental Geology, 34, 21–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cronin, S. J., Neall, V. E., Lecointre, J. A., Hedley, M. J., & Loganathan, P. (2003). Environmental hazards of fluoride in volcanic ash: A case study from Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 121, 271–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cronin, S. J., & Sharp, D. (2002). Environmental impacts on health from continuous volcanic activity at Yasur (Tanna) and Ambrym, Vanuatu. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 12, 109–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dean, H. T. (1934). Classification of mottled enamel diagnosis. The Journal of the American Dental Association, August, 1421–1426.Google Scholar
  29. Dean, H. T. (1936). Chronic endemic dental fluorosis (mottled enamel). Journal of American Medical Association, 107(16), 1269–1273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dean, H. T. (1942). The investigation of physiological effects by the epidemiological method. In F. R. Moulton (Ed.), Fluorine and dental health Vol 19, (pp. 23–31). Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science.Google Scholar
  31. Deckers, J., & Steinnes, E. (2004). State of the art on soil-related geo-medical issues in the world. Advances in Agronomy, 84, 1–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Delmelle, P., & Stix, J. (2000). Volcanic gases. In H. Sigurdsson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of volcanoes (pp. 803–815). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  33. Delmelle, P., Stix, J., Baxter, P. J., Garcia-Alvarez, J., & Barquero, J. (2002). Atmospheric dispersion, environmental effects and potential health hazard associated with the low-altitude gas plume of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. Bulletin of Volcanology, 64, 423–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Den Besten, P. K. (1994). Dental fluorosis: Its use as a biomarker. Advances in Dental Research, 8(1), 105–110.Google Scholar
  35. Deong, W. H. (1991). Mission report oral health promotion. Government of Vanuatu: World Health Organisation.Google Scholar
  36. Dissanayake, C. B. (1996). Water quality and dental health in the dry zone of Sri Lanka (Geological Society Special Publication No. 113).Google Scholar
  37. Dissanayake, C. B., & Chandrajith, R. (1999). Medical geochemistry of tropical environments. Earth-Science Reviews, 47, 219–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Durand, M., Florkowski, C., George, P., Walmsley, T., Weinstein, P., & Cole, J. (2004). Elevated trace element output in urine following acute volcanic gas exposure. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 134, 139–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Edmunds, M., & Smedley, P. (2005). Fluoride in natural waters. In O. Selinus, B. J. Alloway, J. A. Centeno, R. B. Finkelman, R. Fuge, U. Lindh, & P. Smedley (Eds.), Essentials of medical geology (pp. 301–329). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  40. Fejerskov, O., Larsen, M. J., Richards, A., & Baelum, V. (1994). Dental tissue effects of fluoride. Advances in Dental Research, 8, 15–31.Google Scholar
  41. Fejerskov, O., Manji, F., Baelum, V., & Moller, I. J. (1988). Dental fluorosis—A handbook for health workers (1st ed.). Copehagen: Munksgaard.Google Scholar
  42. Frencken, J., & Smet, J. (1990). Notes of the discussion. In J. E. Frencken (Ed.), Proceedings of the Symposium on Endemic Fluorosis in Developing Countries: Causes, Effects and Possible Solutions (pp. 96–98). NIPGTNO, Leiden.Google Scholar
  43. Gamble, J. A., Wood, C. P., Price, R. C., Smith, I. E. M., Stewart, R. B., & Waight, T. (1999). A fifty year perspective of magmatic evolution on Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand: Verification of an open system behaviour in an arc volcano. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 170, 301–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Garrec, J. P., Plebin, R., & Faivre-Pierret, R. X. (1984). Impact of volcanic fluoride and SO2 emissions from moderated activity volcanoes on the surrounding vegetation. Bulletin of Volcanology, 47(3), 491–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Grattan, J., Rabartin, R., Self, S., & Thordarson, T. (2005). Volcanic air pollution and mortality in France 1783–1784. Comptes Rendus Geoscience, 337, 641–651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Griffin, S. O., Beltran, E. D., Lockwood, S. A., & Barker, L. K. (2002). Esthetically objectionable fluorosis attributable to water fluoridation. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 30, 199–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Grimaldo, M., Borja-Aburto, V. H., Ramirez, A. L., Ponce, M., Rosas, M., & Biaz-Barriga, F. (1995). Endemic fluorosis in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Environmental Research, 68, 25–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Grobler, S. R., Louw, A. J., & Van Kotze, T. J. W. (2001). Dental fluorosis and caries experience in relation to three different drinking water fluoride levels in South Africa. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 11, 372–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hamdan, M. A. (2003). The prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among 12-year-old schoolchildren in Jordan. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 13, 85–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hansell, A. L., Horwell, C. J., & Oppenheimer, C. (2006). The health hazards of volcanoes and geothermal areas. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 63, 149–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Horowitz, H. S., Driscoll, W. S., Meyers, R. J., Heifetz, S. B., & Kingman, A. (1984). A new method for assessing the prevalence of dental fluorosis—The Tooth Surface Index of Fluorosis. Journal of the American Dental Association, 109, 37–41.Google Scholar
  52. Ibrahim, Y. E., Affan, A. A., & Bjorvatn, K. (1995). Fluoride and fluorosis in the Sudan. Paper presented at the First International Workshop on Fluorosis and Defluoridation of Water, Ngurdoto, Tanzania.Google Scholar
  53. Ibrahim, Y. E., Bjorvatn, K., & Birkeland, J. M. (1997). Caries and dental fluorosis in a 0.25 and a 2.5 ppm fluoride area in the Sudan. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 7, 161–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Krishnamachari, K. A. V. R. (1986). Skeletal fluorosis in humans: A review of recent progress in the understanding of the disease. Progress in Food and Nutrition Science, 10, 279–314.Google Scholar
  55. Levy, S. M., Hillis, S. L., Warren, J. J., Broffitt, B. A., Mahbubul Islam, A. K. M., Wefel, J. S., et al. (2002). Primary tooth fluorosis and fluoride intake during the first year of life. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 30, 286–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Littleton, J. (1999). Paleopathology of skeletal fluorosis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 109, 465–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mackay, T. D., & Thomson, W. M. (2005). Enamel defects and dental caries among Southland children. New Zealand Dental Journal, June, 35–43.Google Scholar
  58. Mason, B., & Moore, C. B. (1982). Principles of geochemistry (4th ed.). USA: Wiley.Google Scholar
  59. McGill, P. E. (1995). Endemic fluorosis. Bailliere’s Clinical Rheumatology, 9(1), 75–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Monzier, M., Robin, C., Eissen, J.-P., & Cotten, J. (1997). Geochemistry vs. seismo-tectonics along the volcanic New Hebrides central chain (Southwest Pacific). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 78, 1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Murray, J. J. (Ed.). (1986). Appropriate use of fluorides for human health. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  62. NASA. (2004). Earth observatory. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/Archive/May2004/Vanuatu.AMOA2004136.jpg. Accessed 4 August 2006.
  63. Neall, V. E. (1996). Hydrological disasters associated with volcanoes. In V. P. Sing (Ed.), Hydrology of disasters (pp. 395–425). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  64. Neall, V. E. (2006). Volcanic soils, in land use and land cover. Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS): Developed under the auspices of UNESCO. Oxford, UK: Eolss Publishers.Google Scholar
  65. Németh, K., Cronin, S. J., Stewart, R. B., & Charley, D. (2009). Intra- and extra-caldera volcaniclastic facies and geomorphic characteristics of a frequently active mafic island–arc volcano, Ambrym Island, Vanuatu. Sedimentary Geology. doi:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2009.04.019.
  66. Nielsen, F. H. (2000). Possibly essential trace elements. In J. D. Bogden & L. M. Klevay (Eds.), Clinical nutrition of the essential trace elements and minerals (pp. 11–36). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.Google Scholar
  67. Norman-Taylor, W., & Rees, W. H. (1964). A health survey in the New Hebrides (No. 143). Noumea, New Caledonia: South Pacific Commission.Google Scholar
  68. Oppenheimer, C. (2003). Volcanic degassing. In The crust (ed. R. L. Rudnick) Vol. 3, Treatise on geochemistry (eds. H. D. Holland & K. K. Turekian), Elsevier-Pergamon, Oxford, pp. 123–166.Google Scholar
  69. Pelletier, B., Calmant, S., & Pillet, R. (1998). Current tectonics of the Tonga-New Hebrides region. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 164, 263–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pennington, J. A. T. (2000). Current dietary intakes of trace elements and minerals. In J. D. Bogden & L. M. Klevay (Eds.), Clinical nutrition of the essential trace elements and minerals (pp. 49–67). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.Google Scholar
  71. Pereira, A. C., & Moreira, B.-H. W. (1999). Analysis of three dental fluorosis indexes used in epidemiologic trials. Brazilian Dental Journal, 10(1), 1–60.Google Scholar
  72. Plant, J., Baldock, J., Haslam, H., & Smith, B. (1998). The role of geochemistry in environmental and epidemiological studies in developing countries. Episodes, 21(1), 19–27.Google Scholar
  73. Pyle, D. M., & Mather, T. A. (2009). Halogens in igneous processes and their fluxes to the atmosphere and oceans from volcanic activity: A review. Chemical Geology, 263, 110–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rai, L. C., Husaini, Y., & Mallick, N. (1996). Physiological and biochemical responses of Nostoc linckia to combined effects of aluminium, fluoride and acidification. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 36(1), 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rice, A. (2000). Rollover in volcanic crater lakes: A possible cause for Lake Nyos type disasters. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 97, 233–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Riordan, P. J. (1993). Perceptions of dental fluorosis. Journal of Dental Research, 72(9), 1268–1274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Robinson, P. G., Nalweyiso, N., Busingye, J., & Whitworth, J. (2005). Subjective impacts of dental caries and fluorosis in rural Ugandan children. Community Dental Health, 22(4), 231–236.Google Scholar
  78. Russell, A. L. (1961). The differential diagnosis of fluoride and nonfluoride enamel opacities. Public Health Dentistry, 21(4), 143–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Schellart, W. P., Lister, G. S., & Toy, V. G. (2006). A late cretaceous and cenozoic reconstruction of the Southwest Pacific region: Tectonics controlled by subduction and slab rollback processes. Earth-Science Reviews, 76, 191–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Smith, H. V. (1942). The chemistry of fluorine as related to fluorosis. In F. R. Moulton (Ed.), Fluorine and dental health (Vol. 19, pp. 12–22). Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science.Google Scholar
  81. Smith, M. C., Lantz, E. M., & Smith, H. V. (1931). The cause of mottled enamel. Science, 74(1914), 244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Stephen, K. W., Macpherson, L. M. D., Gilmour, W. H., Stuart, R. A. M., & Merrett, M. C. W. (2002). A blind caries and fluorosis prevalence study of school-children in naturally fluoridated and nonfluoridated townships of Morayshire, Scotland. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 30, 70–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sutton, J., & Elias, T. (1993). Volcanic gases create air pollution on the island of Hawaii. Earthquakes and Volcanoes, 24(4), 178–196.Google Scholar
  84. Symonds, R. B., Rose, W. I., & Reed, M. H. (1988). Contribution of Cl- and F-bearing gases to the atmosphere by volcanoes. Nature, 334, 415–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tabari, E. D., Ellwood, R., Rugg-Gunn, A. J., Evans, D. J., & Davies, R. M. (2000). Dental fluorosis in permanent incisor teeth in relation to water fluoridation, social deprivation and toothpaste use in infancy. British Dental Journal, 189(4), 216–220.Google Scholar
  86. Tekle-Haimanot, R., Fedaku, A., Bushera, B., & Mekonnen, Y. (1995). Fluoride levels in water and endemic fluorosis in Ethiopian Rift Valley. Paper presented at the First International Workshop on Fluorosis and Defluoridation of Water, Ngurdoto, Tanzania.Google Scholar
  87. Thorarinsson, S. (1979). On the damage caused by volcanic eruptions with special reference to tephra and gases. In P. D. Sheets & D. K. Grayson (Eds.), Volcanic activity and human ecology (pp. 125–159). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  88. Thordarson, T., Self, S., Oskarsson, N., & Hulsebosch, T. (1996). Sulfur, chlorine, and fluorine degassing and atmospheric loading by the 1783–1784 AD Laki (Skaftar fires) eruption in Iceland. Bulletin of Volcanology, 58, 205–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Thylstrup, A., & Fejerskov, O. (1978). Clincial appearance of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth in relation to histologic changes. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 6, 315–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Torino, M., Rognini, M., & Fornaciari, G. (1995). Dental fluorosis in ancient Herculaneum. The Lancet, 345, 1306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. UNICEF. (2001). The state of health behaviour and lifestyle of Pacific youth. Vanuatu report. Suva, Fiji: UNICEF Pacific.Google Scholar
  92. VMS. (2007). The climate of Vanuatu. Vanuatu Meteorological Service. www.meteo.gov.vu/ClimateServices/TheClimateOfVanuatu/tabid/100/Default.aspx. Accessed 20 June 2009.
  93. Weets, J. D. (1996). The dental anthropology of Vanuatu, Eastern Melanesia. Thesis, Arizona State University, Arizona.Google Scholar
  94. WHO. (1971). International standards for drinking-water (3rd ed.). Geneva: World Health Organisation.Google Scholar
  95. WHO. (1997). Oral health surveys: Basic methods (4th ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  96. WHO. (2001). Water-related diseases. www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/diseases/fluorosis/en/print.html. Accessed 5 April 2005.
  97. WHO. (2004). Guidelines for drinking-water quality Vol 1 (3rd ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  98. Whyte, M. P., Essmyer, K., Gannon, F. H., & Reinus, W. R. (2005). Skeletal fluorosis and instant tea. The American Journal of Medicine, 118(1), 78–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Witham, C. S., Oppenheimer, C., & Horwell, C. J. (2005). Volcanic ash-leachates: A review and recommendations for sampling methods. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 141, 299–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Yanez, L., Ortiz, D., Calderon, J., Batres, L., Carrizales, L., Mejia, J., et al. (2002). Overview of human health and chemical mixtures: Problems facing developing countries. Environmental Health Perspectives, 110(6), 901–909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rachel Allibone
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shane J. Cronin
    • 1
  • Douglas T. Charley
    • 3
  • Vince E. Neall
    • 1
  • Robert B. Stewart
    • 1
  • Clive Oppenheimer
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of Natural ResourcesMassey UniversityPalmerston North, AotearoaNew Zealand
  2. 2.AECOM, Australia Pty LtdCanberraAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Geology, Mines, and Water ResourcesPort VilaVanuatu
  4. 4.Department of GeographyUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations