Assessment of nutrients and heavy metals enrichment in surface sediments from Taihu Lake, a eutrophic shallow lake in China
- 628 Downloads
Concentrations of the nutrients (TN and TP), phosphorus fractions and heavy metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, V, Zn and Hg) in 40 surface sediment samples collected from Taihu Lake, a eutrophic shallow lake in China, were determined. The results showed that the northwest region of the lake possessed higher concentrations of TN and TP, as well as the similar spatial distribution trend in the water column. This should be related to excessive anthropogenic input from industrial effluents and domestic sewage in surrounding areas. Similarly, the concentrations of P fractions exhibited significant regularity. In addition, except for Sr showing low concentration, the rest of the heavy metals in the surface sediments had two- to four-folds of magnitude of the concentrations compared with the reference values in earth's crust. In the past decade, concentrations of heavy metals had undergone different levels of variations. Principal component analysis (PCA) and enrichment factors (EFs) of the compositional data aiming at heavy metals showed that Taihu Lake was slightly exposing to heavy metal contamination except Sr. High concentrations of heavy metals were ascribed to the discharge of untreated and partially treated industrial waste water via rivers. Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn positively correlated with each other (R = 0.78–0.92), that indicated they had analogous sources and/or kindred geochemistry characteristics. Differing from nutrients, randomness in the space indicated that heavy metals had a complex distribution.
KeywordsNutrients Heavy metals Multivariate analysis Sediments Taihu Lake
This research was supported by the Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KZCX1-YW-14-5), Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (973 program)(2008CB418103) and Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK2008055). Thanks are also due to Yong Zhang of Anhui Normal University for his help in the fieldwork. Yong-ping Zhang was extremely helpful in providing samples of E. Taihu Lake. Yu-xin Zhu is gratefully acknowledged for assistance with ICP-AES measurements.
- EPA. (1994). Determination of metals and trace elements in water and wastes by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. http://www.accustandard.com/asi/epa_downloads.php3#200_series. Accessed 17 May 2010.
- Fan, C. X., Zhu, Y. X., Ji, Z. J., Zhang, L., & Yang, L. Y. (2002). Characteristics of the pollution of heavy metals in the sediments of Yilihe River, Taihu Basin. Journal of Lake Sciences, 14(3), 235–241. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Golterman, H. L. (2001). Fractionation and bioavailability of phosphates in lacustrine sediments: A review. Limnetica, 20(1), 15–29.Google Scholar
- Jefferson Lab. (2007). It’s elemental. The element mercury. http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele080.html. Accessed 17 May 2010.
- Loska, K., Cebula, J., Pelczar, J., Wiechula, D., & Kwapuliński, J. (1997). Use of enrichment, and contamination factors together with geoaccumulation indexes to evaluate the content of Cd, Cu, and Ni in the Rybnik water reservoir in Poland. Water, Air, and Soil pollution, 93, 347–365.Google Scholar
- Nixdorf, B., & Deneke, R. (2004). Why “very shallow” lakes are more successful opposing reduced nutrient loads. Hydrobiologia, 342(343), 269–284.Google Scholar
- Ram, A., Rokade, M. A., & Zingde, M. D. (2009). Mercury enrichment in sediments of Amba estuary. Indian Journal of Marine, 38, 89–96.Google Scholar
- Rule, J. H. (1986). Assessment of trace element geochemistry of Hampton Roads harbor and lower Chesapeake Bay area sediments. Environmental Geology, 8(4), 209–219.Google Scholar
- Shumilin, E., Meyer-Willerer, A., Marmolejo-Rodríguez, A. J., Morton-Bermea, O., Galicia-Perez, M. A., Hernández, E., et al. (2005). Iron, cadmium, chromium, copper, cobalt, lead, and zinc distribution in the suspended particulate matter of the tropical Marabasco River and its estuary, Colima, Mexico. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 74, 518–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Xu, P. Z., & Qin, B. Q. (2005). Water quantity and pollutant fluxes of the surrounding rivers of Lake Taihu during the hydrological year of 2001–2002. Journal of Lake Sciences, 17, 213–218. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Zhai, S. H., & Zhang, H. J. (2006). Water quality and waste load variation of rivers around Lake Taihu from 2000 to 2002. Journal of Lake Sciences, 18, 225–230. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Zhang, Y. P., & Qu, W. C. (2001). Determination of heavy metal contents in the sediments from Taihu Lake and it’s environmental significance. Rock and Mineral Analysis, 20, 34–36. (in Chinese).Google Scholar