An investigation into the occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in two soil size fractions at a former industrial site in NE England, UK using in situ PFE–GC–MS
- 290 Downloads
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations were determined in 16 topsoils (0–10 cm) collected across the site of a former tar works in NE England. The soils were prepared in the laboratory to two different particle size fractions: <250 μm (fraction A) and >250 μm to <2 mm (fraction B). Sixteen priority PAHs were analysed in the soils using in situ pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) followed by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The average total PAH concentration in the soils ranged from 9.0 to 1,404 mg/kg (soil fraction A) and from 6.6 to 872 mg/kg (soil fraction B). These concentrations are high compared with other industrially contaminated soils reported in the international literature, indicating that the tar works warrants further investigation/remediation. A predominance of higher-molecular-weight compounds was determined in the samples, suggesting that the PAHs were of pyrogenic (anthropogenic) origin. Statistical comparison (t-test) of the mean total PAH concentrations in soil fractions A and B indicated that there was a significant difference (95% confidence interval) between the fractions in all but two of the soil samples. Additionally, comparisons of the distributions of individual PAHs (i.e. 16 PAHs × 16 soil samples) in soil fractions A and B demonstrated generally higher PAH concentrations in fraction A (i.e. 65.8% of all individual PAH concentrations were higher in soil fraction A). This is important because fraction A corresponds to the particle size thought to be most important in terms of human contact with soils and potential threats to human health.
KeywordsPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Soil particle size In situ pressurised fluid extraction Gas chromatography—mass spectrometer Contaminated soils
Northumbria University is acknowledged for the award of a studentship to one of us (D.L.) in collaboration with the British Geological Survey. Newcastle City Council is acknowledged for allowing access to the study site. Dr. Jane Entwistle is acknowledged for providing the map in Fig. 1. The authors also acknowledge the contribution of the Special Issue Editor (Fiona Fordyce) in providing valuable comments during the editing of the manuscript. This paper is published with the permission of the Director of the British Geological Survey.
- Bornschein, R. L., Succop, P. A., Kraft, K. M., Clark, C. S., Peace, B., & Hammond, P. B. (1987) Exterior surface dust lead, interior house dust lead and childhood lead exposure in an urban environment. In D. D. Hemphill (Ed.), Trace substances in environmental health XX: Proceedings of University of Missouri’s 20th Annual Conference, Columbia, MO, June 1986 (Vol. 20, pp. 322–332).Google Scholar
- Canosa, P., Perez Palacios, D., Garrido-Lopez, A., Tena, M. T., Rodriguez, I., Rubi, E., et al. (2007). Pressurised liquid extraction with in-cell clean-up followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the selective determination of parabens and triclosan in indoor dust. Journal of Chromatography. A, 1161, 105–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dean, J. R. (1998). Extraction methods for environmental organic analysis. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Dean, J. R. (2003). Methods for environmental trace analysis. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
- EA. (2009). Contaminated land exposure assessment publications. Bristol: Environment Agency. http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/research/planning/33734.aspx. Accessed Date December 2009.
- ICRCL. (1987). Guidance on the assessment and redevelopment of contaminated land. Interdepartmental Committee for the Redevelopment of Contaminated Land Guidance Note No. 59/83. Department of the Environment, London.Google Scholar
- Lorenzi, D., Cave, M., & Dean, J. R. (2008). Development of an in situ pressurized fluid extraction method for the extraction of PAHs from contaminated soils. Organohalogen Compounds, 70, 1479–1482.Google Scholar
- Nathanial, C. P., Mc Affrey, C., Ashmore, M., Cheng, Y., Gilett, A., Hooker, P., et al. (2007). Generic assessment criteria for human health risk assessment. Nottingham: Land Quality.Google Scholar
- Neff, J. M., Boehm, P. D., Kropp, R., Stubblefield, W. A., & Page, D.S. (2003). Monitoring recovery of Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill: Bioavailability of PAH in offshore sediments. In Proceedings of the international oil spill conference, Publication No. I 4730 B. Washington, DC: American Petroleum Institute.Google Scholar
- Santodonato, J., Howard, P., & Basu, D. (1981). Health and ecological assessment of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Journal of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology, 5(1), 1–364.Google Scholar
- Spitzer, T., & Kuwatsuka, S. (1993). Residue levels of polynuclear aromatic compounds in urban surface soil from Japan. Journal of Chromatography, 643(1–2), 305–309.Google Scholar
- Tim O’Hare Associates. (2002). The contaminated land exposure assessment (CLEA). UK: Soil and Landscape Consultancy.Google Scholar
- US-EPA. (1984). Guidelines establishing test procedures for the analysis of pollutants under the clean water act: Method 610. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. United States Environmental Protection Agency Federal Regulations, 49(209, Part 136), 43344–43352.Google Scholar
- VROM. (2000). Circular on target values and intervention values for soil remediation. The Hague, The Netherlands: Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment. http://www2.minvrom.nl/Docs/internationaal/annexS_I2000.pdf. Accessed February 2010.
- Wang, W., Meng, B., Lu, X., Liu, U., & Tao, S. (2007). Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides from soils: A comparison between Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction techniques. Analytica Chimica Acta, 602, 211–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar