Tracing the factors responsible for arsenic enrichment in groundwater of the middle Gangetic Plain, India: a source identification perspective
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Arsenic contamination in groundwater is of increasing concern because of its high toxicity and widespread occurrence. This study is an effort to trace the factors responsible for arsenic enrichment in groundwater of the middle Gangetic Plain of India through major ion chemistry, arsenic speciation, sediment grain-size analyses, and multivariate statistical techniques. The study focuses on the distinction between the contributions of natural weathering and anthropogenic inputs of arsenic with its spatial distribution and seasonal variations in the plain of the state Bihar of India. Thirty-six groundwater and one sediment core samples were collected in the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Various graphical plots and statistical analysis were carried out using chemical data to enable hydrochemical evaluation of the aquifer system based on the ionic constituents, water types, hydrochemical facies, and factors controlling groundwater quality. Results suggest that the groundwater is characterized by slightly alkaline pH with moderate to strong reducing nature. The general trend of various ions was found to be Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ > NH4 +; and HCO3 − > Cl− > SO4 2− > NO3 − > PO4 3− > F− in both seasons. Spatial and temporal variations showed a slightly higher arsenic concentration in the pre-monsoon period (118 μg/L) than in the post-monsoon period (114 μg/L). Results of correlation analyses indicate that arsenic contamination is strongly associated with high concentrations of Fe, PO4 3−, and NH4 + but relatively low Mn concentrations. Further, the enrichment of arsenic is more prevalent in the proximity of the Ganges River, indicating that fluvial input is the main source of arsenic. Grain size analyses of sediment core samples revealed clay (fine-grained) strata between 4.5 and 7.5 m deep that govern the vertical distribution of arsenic. The weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals along with surface-groundwater interactions, ion exchange, and anthropogenic activities seem to be the processes governing groundwater contamination, including with arsenic. Although the percentage of wells exceeding the permissible limit (50 μg/L) was less (47%) than that reported in Bangladesh and West Bengal, the percentage contribution of toxic As(III) to total arsenic concentration is quite high (66%). This study is vital considering that groundwater is the exclusive source of drinking water in the region and not only makes situation alarming but also calls for immediate attention.
KeywordsArsenic Gangetic Plain Groundwater Health Hydrogeochemical processes India Mobilization and transport Nitrate contamination Grain-size analysis
First author (PK) would like to thank Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Government of India, for giving a fellowship and grant for my research work. The authors also acknowledge the Department of Science and Technology (DST), under the Government of India for their financial support.
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