Historical trends of trace metals in a sediment core from a contaminated tidal salt marsh in San Francisco Bay
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Sedimentation of metals preserves historical records of contaminant input from local and regional sources, and measurement of metals in sediment cores can provide information for reconstruction of historical changes in regional water and sediment quality. Sediment core was collected from Stege Marsh located in central San Francisco Bay (California, USA) to investigate the historical input of trace metals. Aluminum-normalized enrichment factors indicate that inputs from anthropogenic sources were predominant over natural input for Ag, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Among these, lead was the most anthropogenically impacted metal with enrichment factors ranging from 32 to 108. Depth profiles and coefficients of variation show that As, Cd, and Se were also influenced by anthropogenic input. The levels of these anthropogenically impacted metals decline gradually towards the surface due to regulation of the use of leaded gasoline, municipal and industrial wastewater discharge control, and closure of point sources on the upland of Stege Marsh. Although trace metal contamination is expected to be continuously declining, the rates of decline have slowed down. For lead, it is estimated to take 44, 82, and 153 years to decrease to probable effects level (112 μg/g), the San Francisco Bay ambient surface sediment level (43.2 μg/g), and the local baseline levels (5 μg/g), respectively. Some metals in surface sediments (0–6 cm) are still higher than sediment quality guidelines such as the probable effects level. To further facilitate the recovery of sediment quality, more efficient management plans need to be developed and implemented to control trace metals from non-point sources such as stormwater runoff.
Key wordsSediment core Metals Enrichment factors Anthropogenic input Tidal salt marsh
We are thankful to Dr. Frances Malamud-Roam for her help in field sampling. We would like to thank Rodelia Busalpa, Yun Lu, William Schilling, and Marlene Relja for their help in laboratory chemical analysis. This research has been supported by a grant from the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Estuarine and Great Lakes (EaGLe) Coastal Initiative through funding to the Pacific Estuarine Ecosystem Indicator Research (PEEIR) Consortium, US EPA Agreement #EPA/R-82867601.
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