Environmental Geochemistry and Health

, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 391–400 | Cite as

Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of elephant geophagic soils in Udawalawe National Park, Sri Lanka

  • Rohana Chandrajith
  • Enoka Kudavidanage
  • H. J. Tobschall
  • C. B. Dissanayake
Original Paper


Geophagy or deliberate ingestion of soils was observed among Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in the Udawalwe National Park, Sri Lanka, for several years. The geochemical and mineralogical composition of the clayey soil layers which are purposefully selected and eaten by elephants in the park were studied, in order to identify the possible reasons for elephant geophagy. The concentrations of major and trace elements were determined by means of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in 21 soil samples from eight geophagic sites and six soil samples collected from four non-geophagic sites. The mineralogical composition of selected soil samples was investigated using X-ray diffractometry (XRD). These geochemical analyses revealed that geophagic soils in the study areas are deeply weathered and that most of the elements are leached from the soil layers under extreme weathering conditions. The XRD data showed that the soils of the area consisted mainly quartz, feldspar, and the clay minerals kaolinite, Fe-rich illite, and smectite. Although no significant geochemical differences were identified between geophagic and non-geophagic soils, a clear difference was observed in their clay mineralogical content. Soils eaten by elephants are richer in kaolinite and illite than non-geophagic soils, which contain a higher amount of smectite. It is suggested that elephants in Udawalawe National Park ingest soils mainly not to supplement the mineral contents of their forage but to detoxify unpalatable compounds in their diet.


Mammalian herbivores Geophagy Soils Asian elephants Elephas maximus Clay minerals Udawalawe National Park 



The authors wish to thank Chamitha de Alwis, Sarath Rajapakse, Deepchandi Lekamge, and Sanath Hewage for their assistance in the field, and Dr. Stefan Krum and Mr. Peter Lausser in the Chair of Geology, Erlangen for their assistance with X-ray diffractometry. Logistic and technical support provided by the park warden and his staff of Udawalawe National Park is acknowledged. We are also grateful to Mr. H.D. Ratnayake, Dr. K.B.Ranawana, and his team Prof. S.W. Kotagama and Dr. David Lohman for their numerous help. Financial support received for the field work from the Biodiversity and Elephant Conservation Trust (BECT), Sri Lanka is gratefully acknowledged. RC acknowledges the fellowship received from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation which enabled him to carry out the chemical and mineralogical analysis at Erlangen. This research was conducted under the kind permission from the Director, Department of Wildlife Conservation, Sri Lanka.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rohana Chandrajith
    • 1
    • 2
  • Enoka Kudavidanage
    • 3
    • 4
  • H. J. Tobschall
    • 2
  • C. B. Dissanayake
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of PeradeniyaPeradeniyaSri Lanka
  2. 2.Institute of Geology and MineralogyUniversity of Erlangen-NürnbergErlangenGermany
  3. 3.Conservation Ecology Lab, Department of Biological SciencesNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  4. 4.Department of Natural ResourcesSabaragamuwa University of Sri LankaButtalaSri Lanka

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