Spatial patterns of tungsten and cobalt in surface dust of Fallon, Nevada
- 161 Downloads
Spatial patterns of tungsten and cobalt are described for surface dust of Fallon, Nevada, where a cluster of childhood leukemia has been ongoing since 1997. In earlier research, airborne tungsten and cobalt was shown to be elevated in total suspended particulates in Fallon. To fine-tune the spatial patterns of tungsten and cobalt deposition in Fallon, surface dust was collected in a grid pattern within as well as outside of Fallon to establish background concentrations of metals. In surface dust, tungsten and cobalt show sharp peaks (934 ppm and 98 ppm, respectively) within Fallon just north of highway 50 and west of highway 95. These two peaks overlap spatially, and given the grid pattern used for collecting surface dust, the source area of these two airborne metals can be pinpointed to the vicinity of hard-metal industry located north of highway 50 and west of highway 95. Fallon is distinctive in west central Nevada because of high airborne tungsten and cobalt particulates, and given its cluster of childhood leukemia, it stands to reason that additional biomedical research is in order to test directly the leukogenicity of combined airborne tungsten and cobalt particulates.
KeywordsFallon Nevada Childhood leukemia Tungsten Cobalt Surface dust chemistry
Angelika Clemens assisted with fieldwork, and Nicole Little, Tessa Schut, and Jon Dake assisted with sample preparation and analysis of surface dust samples. INAA measurements were conducted at the University of Missouri Research Reactor Center. This project was supported in part by the Gerber Foundation and the Cancer Research and Prevention Foundation, neither of which is otherwise responsible for any content of this paper.
- Expert Panel (2004). Final Report and Recommendations to the Nevada State Health Division, Expert Panel on Childhood Leukemia in Churchill County, Nevada. Available: http://www.health2k.state.nv.us/healthofficer/leukaemia/FALLONexpertpanel022304.pdf.
- Glascock, M. D. (1992). Characterization of archaeological ceramics at MURR by neutron activation analysis and multivariate statistics. In H. Neff (Ed.), Chemical characterization of ceramic pastes in archaeology (pp. 11–26). Madison, Wisconsin: Prehistory Press.Google Scholar
- Greater Fallon Area Chamber of Commerce (2005). History of Fallon, available: http://www.fallonchamber.com.
- Harris, P. M., & Humphreys, D. S. C. (1983). Tungsten: A Review. Occasional Papers of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, Paper 2, Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London, England, 1983, 42 pp.Google Scholar
- Krauskopf, K. B. (1995). Introduction to geochemistry. New York: McGraw-Hill, 647 pp.Google Scholar
- Neff, H. (1992). Introduction. In H. Neff (Ed.), Chemical characterization of ceramic pastes in archaeology. Madison, Wisconsin: Prehistory Press, pp. 1–10.Google Scholar
- Neff, H. (2000). Neutron activation analysis for provenance determination in archaeology. In E. Ciliberto, & G. Spoto (Eds.), Modern analytical methods in art and archaeology (pp. 81–134). New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
- Nevada State Health Division (2004). New Childhood Leukemia Case Confirmed. News Release, December 20, 2004. Available at: http://www.health2k.state.nv.us/pio/releases/122004PressRelLeukemia.pdf
- NOAA (2006). National Climatic Data Center. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Available at: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/ncdc.html.
- Pardus, M. J., Sueker, J. K., & Gass, T. E. (2005). Tungsten: Occurrence, environmental fate, potential ecological and health effects. Abstracts of Papers (GEOC 37, ), 230th America Chemical Society Meeting, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Rapsomanikis, S., & Donard, O. (1985). Lead and zinc in roadside dust from a suburb in Athens, Greece. Environmental Technology Letters 6, 145–148.Google Scholar
- Reid, E. A., Reid, J. S., Meier, M. M., Dunlap, M. R., Cliff, S. S., Broumas, A, Perry, K., & Maring, H. (2003). Characterization of African dust transported to Puerto Rico by individual particle and size segregated bulk analysis. J Geophys Res-Atmo 108(D19), No. 8591.Google Scholar
- Reno Gazette-Journal (Frank X. Mullen), 5 February 2003. No pollution controls in tungsten plant.Google Scholar
- Sheppard, P. R., Speakman, R. J., Ridenour, G, & Witten, M. L. (2007). Using lichen chemistry to assess airborne tungsten and cobalt in Fallon, Nevada. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, doi:10.1007/s10661-006-9440-1.
- Sokal, R. R., & Rohlf, F. J. (1981). Biometry. San Francisco: WH Freeman and Co., 859 pp.Google Scholar
- Stager, H. K., & Tingley, J. V. (1988). Tungsten Deposits in Nevada. Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology. Bulletin 105, University of Nevada-Reno School of Mines, Reno, Nevada, 256 pp.Google Scholar
- U.S. ATSDR (2002). Evaluation of potential exposures from the Fallon JP-8 fuel pipeline. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Available: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/HAC/PHA/fallonpipe/fallon_toc.html
- U.S. ATSDR (2003a). Surface water, sediment, and biota human exposure pathway analysis for Churchill County: Fallon Leukemia Project, Fallon, Churchill County, Nevada. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Available: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/HAC/PHA/fallonwater/finalwater.pdf
- U.S. ATSDR (2003b). Air exposure pathway and assessment: Fallon Leukemia Cluster Investigation. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Available: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/HAC/PHA/fallonair/finalair.pdf
- U.S. ATSDR (2003c) Pathway assessment for Churchill County surface soils and residential indoor dust: Fallon Leukemia Project, Fallon, Churchill County, Nevada, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Available: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/HAC/PHA/fallonsoil/finalsoil.pdf
- U.S. CDC (2003a). A cross-sectional exposure assessment of environmental exposures in Churchill County, Nevada, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/clusters/fallon
- U.S. CDC (2003b). Exposure to tungsten in three Nevada communities, report to the Nevada State Health Division. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/clusters/fallon/tungsten_report.pdf
- U.S. Census, (2000). United States Census 2000. Available: http://www.census.gov/main/www/cen2000.html
- U.S. NCI (2003). Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and the U.S. Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival Rates by Primary Cancer Sites, Sex, and Time Period. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2000, Table XXVII-3: Childhood Cancers, U.S. National Cancer Institute. Available: http://www.seer.cancer.gov