# Not a One-Way Street: Bidirectional Relations Between Procedural and Conceptual Knowledge of Mathematics

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## Abstract

There is a long-standing and ongoing debate about the relations between conceptual and procedural knowledge (i.e., knowledge of concepts and procedures). Although there is broad consensus that conceptual knowledge supports procedural knowledge, there is controversy over whether procedural knowledge supports conceptual knowledge and how instruction on the two types of knowledge should be sequenced. A review of the empirical evidence for mathematics learning indicates that procedural knowledge supports conceptual knowledge, as well as vice versa, and thus that the relations between the two types of knowledge are bidirectional. However, alternative orderings of instruction on concepts and procedures have rarely been compared, with limited empirical support for one ordering of instruction over another. We consider possible reasons for why mathematics education researchers often believe that a conceptual-to-procedural ordering of instruction is optimal and why so little research has evaluated this claim. Future empirical research on the effectiveness of different ways to sequence instruction on concepts and procedures is greatly needed.

## Keywords

Conceptual knowledge Procedural knowledge Mathematics learning## References

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