Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 503–522 | Cite as

Educational Psychology: Using Insights from Implicit Attitude Measures

  • Sabine Glock
  • Carrie Kovacs
Review Article


Teachers’ and preservice teachers’ attitudes toward students are mental states that may contribute to teachers’ judgments and students’ achievement. However, in the past, educational research has mainly focused on explicit attitudes and has hardly considered the pivotal role of implicit attitudes in predicting behavior. Drawing on the MODE model of how attitudes guide behavior (Fazio 1990; Fazio and Towles-Schwen 1999), this article gives a brief overview of the most common implicit attitude measures. Focusing on two different student groups who experience disadvantages in educational attainment shows that explicit attitudes are mainly positive, while implicit attitudes are negative and more predictive of teacher’ and preservice teachers’ behavior. This article highlights the need for implicit measures in educational research and identifies questions to be addressed by future research.


Implicit attitudes Teacher attitudes Racial minority Special education 



We thank Sabine Krolak-Schwerdt for her helpful comments on the manuscript.


  1. Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1973). Attitudinal and normative variables as predictors of specific behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27, 41–57. doi: 10.1037/h0034440.Google Scholar
  2. Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  3. Amodio, D. M., & Devine, P. G. (2009). On the interpersonal functions of implicit stereotyping and evaluative race bias: insights from social neuroscience. In R. E. Petty, R. H. Fazio, & P. Briñol (Eds.), Attitudes: insights from the new implicit measures (pp. 193–226). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  4. Ansalone, G. (2001). Schooling, tracking, and inequality. Journal of Children and Poverty, 7, 33–47. doi: 10.1080/10796120120038028.Google Scholar
  5. Ansalone, G., & Biafora, F. (2004). Elementary school teachers’ perceptions and attitudes to the educational structure of tracking. Education, 125, 249–260.Google Scholar
  6. Avramidis, E., Bayliss, P., & Burden, R. (2000a). A survey into mainstream teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion of children with special educational needs in the ordinary school in one local education authority. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, 20, 191–211. doi: 10.1080/713663717.Google Scholar
  7. Avramidis, E., Bayliss, P., & Burden, R. (2000b). Student teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion of children with special education needs in the ordinary school. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16, 277–293. doi: 10.1016/S0742-051X(99)00062-1.Google Scholar
  8. Avramidis, E., & Kalyva, E. (2007). The influence of teaching experience and professional development on Greek teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 4, 367–389. doi: 10.1080/08856250701649989.Google Scholar
  9. Avramidis, E., & Norwich, B. (2002). Teachers’ attitudes towards integration/inclusion: a review of the literature. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 17, 129–147. doi: 10.1080/08856250210129056.Google Scholar
  10. Bakari, R. (2003). Preservice teachers’ attitudes toward teaching African American students: contemporary research. Urban Education, 38, 640–654. doi: 10.1177/0042085903257317.Google Scholar
  11. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. New York: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  12. Bassili, J. N., & Brown, R. D. (2005). Implicit and explicit attitudes: research, challenges, and theory. In D. Albarracín, B. T. Johnson, & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), Handbook of attitudes and attitude change (pp. 543–574). Mahwah: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  13. Beacham, N., & Rouse, M. (2012). Student teachers’ attitudes and beliefs about inclusion and inclusive practice. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 12, 3–11. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-3802.2010.01194.x.Google Scholar
  14. Blackorby, J., & Wagner, M. (1996). Longitudinal postschool outcomes of youth with disabilities: findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study. Exceptional Children, 62, 399–413.Google Scholar
  15. Blair, I. (2002). The malleability of automatic stereotypes and prejudice. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6, 242–261. doi: 10.1207/S15327957PSPR0603_8.Google Scholar
  16. Bowman, I. (1986). Teacher-training and the integration of handicapped pupils: some findings from a fourteen nation UNESCO study. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 1, 29–38. doi: 10.1080/0885625860010105.Google Scholar
  17. Broido, E. M. (2004). Understanding diversity in millennial students. New Directions for Student Services, 106, 73–85. doi: 10.1002/ss.126.Google Scholar
  18. Carlston, D. E. (1980). The recall and use of traits and events in social inference processes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 16, 303–328. doi: 10.1016/0022-1031(80)90025-6.Google Scholar
  19. Caro, D., Lenkeit, R., Lehmann, R., & Schwippert, K. (2009). The role of academic achievement growth in school track recommendations. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 35, 183–192. doi: 10.1016/j.stueduc.2009.12.002.Google Scholar
  20. Clough, P., & Lindsay, G. (1991). Integration and the support service: changing roles in special education. Windsor: NFER-Nelson.Google Scholar
  21. Dasgupta, N., & Greenwald, A. G. (2001). On the malleability of automatic attitudes: combating automatic prejudice with images of admired and disliked individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 800–814. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.81.5.800.Google Scholar
  22. De Houwer, J. (2003). The extrinsic affective Simon task. Experimental Psychology, 50, 77–85. doi: 10.1027//1618-3169.50.2.77.Google Scholar
  23. De Houwer, J. (2006). What are implicit measures and why are we using them? In R. W. Wiers & A. W. Stacy (Eds.), The handbook of implicit cognition and addiction (pp. 11–28). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  24. De Houwer, J., Geldof, T., De Bruycker, E., & De Bruycher, E. (2005). The implicit association test as a general measure of similarity. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 59, 228–239. doi: 10.1037/h0087478.Google Scholar
  25. De Houwer, J., & Hermans, D. (1994). Differences in the affective processing of words and pictures. Cognition and Emotion, 8, 1–20. doi: 10.1080/02699939408408925.Google Scholar
  26. De Jong, G. F., & Madamba, A. B. (2001). A double disadvantage? Minority group, immigrant status, and underemployment in the United States. Social Science Quarterly, 82, 117–130. doi: 10.1111/0038-4941.00011.Google Scholar
  27. Dee, J. R., & Henkin, A. B. (2002). Assessing dispositions toward cultural diversity among preservice teachers. Urban Education, 37, 22–40. doi: 10.1177/0042085902371003.Google Scholar
  28. Dee, T. S. (2005). A teacher like me: does race, ethnicity, or gender matter? The American Economic Review, 95, 158–165. doi: 10.1257/000282805774670446.Google Scholar
  29. Dovidio, J. F., & Gaertner, S. L. (1999). Reducing prejudice: combating intergroup biases. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8, 101–105. doi: 10.1111/1467-8721.00024.Google Scholar
  30. Dovidio, J. F., & Gaertner, S. L. (2004). Aversive racism. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 1–51). San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
  31. Dovidio, J. F., Kawakami, K., Johnson, C., Johnson, B., & Howard, A. (1997). On the nature of prejudice: automatic and controlled processes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 33, 510–540. doi: 10.1006/jesp.1997.1331.Google Scholar
  32. Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  33. Ekstrom, R. B., Goertz, M. E., & Rock, D. A. (1988). Education and American youth: the impact of the high school experience. Philadelphia: Falmer.Google Scholar
  34. Elhoweris, H., Mutua, K., Alsheikh, N., & Holloway, P. (2005). Effect of children’s ethnicity on teachers′ referral and recommendation decisions in gifted and talented programs. Remedial and Special Education, 26, 25–31. doi: 10.1177/07419325050260010401.Google Scholar
  35. Fazio, R. H. (1986). How do attitudes guide behavior? In R. M. Sorrentino & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), The handbook of motivation and cognition: foundations of social behavior (pp. 204–243). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  36. Fazio, R. H. (1990). Multiple processes by which attitudes guide behavior: the MODE model as an integrative framework. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 75–109). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  37. Fazio, R. H. (2007). Attitudes as object-evaluation associations of varying strength. Social Cognition, 25, 664–703. doi: 10.1521/soco.2007.25.5.603.Google Scholar
  38. Fazio, R. H., Jackson, J. R., Dunton, B. C., & Williams, C. J. (1995). Variability in automatic activation as an unobtrusive measure of racial attitudes: a bona fide pipeline? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 1013–1027. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.69.6.1013.Google Scholar
  39. Fazio, R. H., & Olson, M. A. (2003). Implicit measures in social cognition research: their meaning and use. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 297–327. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145225.Google Scholar
  40. Fazio, R. H., & Roskos-Ewoldsen, D. R. (2005). Acting as we feel: when and how attitudes guide behavior. In T. C. Brock & M. C. Green (Eds.), Persuasion: psychological insights and perspectives (2nd ed., pp. 41–62). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  41. Fazio, R. H., Sanbonmatsu, D. M., Powell, M. C., & Kardes, F. R. (1986). On the automatic activation of attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 229–238. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.50.2.229.Google Scholar
  42. Fazio, R. H., & Towles-Schwen, T. (1999). The MODE model of attitude-behavior processes. In S. Chaiken & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual process theories in social psychology (pp. 97–116). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  43. Fazio, R. H., & Williams, C. J. (1986). Attitude accessibility as a moderator of the attitude-perception and attitude-behavior relations: an investigation of the 1984 presidential election. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 505–514. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.51.3.505.Google Scholar
  44. Fiske, S. T., & Neuberg, S. L. (1990). A continuum of impression formation from category-based to individuating processes: influences of information and motivation on attention and interpretation. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 23, pp. 1–74). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  45. Forlin, C. (1995). Educators’ beliefs about inclusive practices in Western Australia. British Journal of Special Education, 22, 179–185. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8578.1995.tb00932.x.Google Scholar
  46. Forlin, C. (2006). Inclusive education in Australia ten years after Salamanca. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 21, 265–277. doi: 10.1007/BF03173415.Google Scholar
  47. Frank, A. R., Sitlington, P. L., & Carson, R. R. (1995). Young adults with behavioral disorders: a comparison with peers with mild disabilities. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 3, 156–164. doi: 10.1177/106342669500300305.Google Scholar
  48. Frankenberg, E. (2010). Exploring teachers’ racial attitudes in a racially transitioning society. Education and Urban Society, 44, 448–476. doi: 10.1177/0013124510392780.Google Scholar
  49. Gawronski, B., & Bodenhausen, G. V. (2006). Associative and propositional processes in evaluation: an integrative review of implicit and explicit attitude change. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 692–731. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.132.5.692.Google Scholar
  50. Gawronski, B., Deutsch, R., Mbirkou, S., Seibt, B., & Strack, F. (2008). When “just say no” is not enough: affirmation versus negation training and the reduction of automatic stereotype activation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 370–377. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2006.12.004.Google Scholar
  51. Glock, S., Kneer, J., & Kovacs, C. (2013a). Student teachers’ implicit attitudes toward students with and without immigration background: A pilot study. Studies in Educational Evaluation, in press. Google Scholar
  52. Glock, S., Kovacs, C., & Unz, D. (2013b). Implicit attitudes toward smoking: How the smell of cigarettes influences college-age smokers and non-smokers. Journal of Health Psychology. doi: 10.1177/1359105313476974.
  53. Glock, S., Krolak-Schwerdt, S., Klapproth, F., & Böhmer, M. (2013c). Beyond judgment bias: How students' ethnicity and academic profile consistency influence teachers' tracking judgments. Social Psychology of Education. doi: 10.1007/s11218-013-9227-5.
  54. Glock, S., & Krolak-Schwerdt, S. (2013). Does nationality matter? The impact of stereotypical expectations on student teachers' judgments. Social Psychology of Education, 16, 111–127. doi: 10.1007/s11218-012-9197-z.
  55. Gollwitzer, P. M., & Moskowitz, G. B. (1996). Goal effects on action and cognition. In A. W. Kruglanski & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Social psychology: handbook of basic principles (pp. 361–399). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  56. Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological Review, 102, 4–27. doi: 10.1037//0033-295X.102.1.4.Google Scholar
  57. Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. K. L. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464–1480. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.74.6.1464.Google Scholar
  58. Greenwald, A. G., Poehlman, T. A., Uhlmann, E. L., & Banaji, M. R. (2009). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 17–41. doi: 10.1037/a0015575.Google Scholar
  59. Hachfeld, A., Hahn, A., Schroeder, S., Anders, Y., Stanat, P., & Kunter, M. (2011). Assessing teachers’ multicultural and egalitarian beliefs: the teacher cultural beliefs scale. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27, 986–996. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2011.04.006.Google Scholar
  60. Hachfeld, A., Schroeder, S., Anders, Y., Hahn, A., & Kunter, M. (2012). Multikulturelle überzeugungen: Herkunft oder überzeugung? Welche Rollen spielen der migrationshintergrund und multikulturelle überzeugungen für das Unterrichten von Kindern mit migrationshintergrund? [Cultural background or cultural beliefs? What role do. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 26, 101–120. doi: 10.1024/1010-0652/a000064.Google Scholar
  61. Hallinan, M. T. (1991). School differences in tracking structures and track assignments. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 1, 251–275. doi: 10.1207/s15327795jra0103_4.Google Scholar
  62. Harris, M., & Rosenthal, R. (2005). No more teachers’ dirty looks: effects of teacher nonverbal behavior on student outcomes. In R. E. Riggio & R. S. Feldman (Eds.), Applications of nonverbal communication (pp. 157–194). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  63. Harvey, D. H. (1985). Mainstreaming: teachers’ attitudes when they have no choice about the matter. Exceptional Child, 32, 163–173. doi: 10.1080/0156655850320304.Google Scholar
  64. Hastings, R. P., & Oakford, S. (2003). Student teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion of children with special needs. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, 23, 87–94. doi: 10.1080/01443410303223.Google Scholar
  65. Haycock, K. (2001). Closing the achievement gap. Educational Leadership, 58, 6–11.Google Scholar
  66. Hermans, D., Baeyens, F., & Eelen, P. (1998). Odours as affective-processing context for word evaluation: a case of cross-modal affective priming. Cognition & Emotion, 12, 601–614. doi: 10.1080/026999398379583.Google Scholar
  67. Hermans, D., Baeyens, F., Lamote, S., Spruyt, A., & Eelen, P. (2005). Affective priming as an indirect measure of food preferences acquired through odor conditioning. Experimental Psychology, 52, 180–186. doi: 10.1027/1618-3169.52.3.180.Google Scholar
  68. Hermans, D., De Houwer, J., & Eelen, P. (2001). A time course analysis of the affective priming effect. Cognition & Emotion, 15, 143–165. doi: 10.1080/02699930125768.Google Scholar
  69. Heyman, W. B. (1990). Self-perception of a learning disability and its relationship to academic self-concept and self-esteem. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 472–475.Google Scholar
  70. Hornstra, L., Denessen, E., Bakker, J., van den Bergh, L., & Voeten, M. (2010). Effects on teacher expectations and the academic achievement of students with dyslexia. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43, 515–529. doi: 10.1177/0022219409355479.Google Scholar
  71. Houston, D. A., & Fazio, R. H. (1989). Biased processing as a function of attitude accessibility: making objective judgments subjectively. Social Cognition, 7, 51–66. doi: 10.1521/soco.1989.7.1.51.Google Scholar
  72. Howe, N., & Strauss, W. (2000). Millennials rising: the next great generation. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
  73. Huebner, E. S. (1991). Bias in special education decisions: the contribution of analogue research. School Psychology Quarterly, 6, 50–65. doi: 10.1037/h0088240.Google Scholar
  74. Irvine, J. J. (2012). Complex relationships between multicultural education and special education: an African American perspective. Journal of Teacher Education, 63, 268–274. doi: 10.1177/0022487112447113.Google Scholar
  75. Junco, R., & Matrodicasa, J. (2007). Connecting to the Net.generation: what higher education professionals need to know about today’s students. Washington, DC: National Association of Student Personnel Administrators.Google Scholar
  76. Kao, G., & Thompson, J. S. (2003). Racial and ethnic stratification in educational achievement and attainment. Annual Review of Sociology, 29, 417–442.Google Scholar
  77. Karpinski, A., & Hilton, J. L. (2001). Attitudes and the Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 774–788. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.81.5.774.Google Scholar
  78. Karpinski, A., & Steinman, R. B. (2006). The single category implicit association test as a measure of implicit social cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 16–32. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.91.1.16.Google Scholar
  79. Kawakami, K., Dovidio, J. F., Moll, J., Hermsen, S., & Russin, A. (2000). Just say no (to stereotyping): effects of training in the negation of stereotypic associations on stereotype activation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 871–888. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.78.5.871.Google Scholar
  80. Klauer, K. C., Mierke, J., & Musch, J. (2003). The positivity proportion effect: a list context effect in masked affective priming. Memory & Cognition, 31, 953–967. doi: 10.3758/BF03196448.Google Scholar
  81. Klauer, K. C., & Musch, J. (2001). Does sunshine prime loyal? Affective priming in the naming task. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. A, 54, 727–751. doi: 10.1080/02724980042000444.Google Scholar
  82. Krolak-Schwerdt, S., Böhmer, M., & Gräsel, C. (2013). The impact of accountability on teachers’ assessments of student performance: a social cognitive analysis. Social Psychology of Education, 16, 215–239. doi: 10.1007/s11218-013-9215-9.Google Scholar
  83. Lambert, A. J., Payne, B. K., Jacoby, L. L., Shaffer, L. M., Chasteen, A. L., & Khan, S. R. (2003). Stereotypes as dominant responses: on the “social facilitation” of prejudice in anticipated public contexts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 277–295. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.84.2.277.Google Scholar
  84. Landrum, T. J., Tankersley, M., & Kauffman, J. M. (2003). What is special about special education for students with emotional or behavioral disorders? The Journal of Special Education, 37, 148–156. doi: 10.1177/00224669030370030401.Google Scholar
  85. LeRoy, B., & Simpson, C. (1996). Improving students’ outcomes through inclusive education. Support for Learning, 11, 32–36. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9604.1996.tb00046.x.Google Scholar
  86. Lee, J. (2002). Racial and ethnic achievement gap trends: reversing the progress toward equity. Educational Researcher, 31, 3–12. doi: 10.3102/0013189X031001003.Google Scholar
  87. Levins, T., Bornholt, L., & Lennon, B. (2005). Teachers’ experience, attitudes, feelings and behavioural intentions towards children with special educational needs. Social Psychology of Education, 8, 329–343. doi: 10.1007/s11218-005-3020-z.Google Scholar
  88. Lewis, T., & Cheng, S.-Y. (2006). Tracking, expectations, and the transformation of vocational education. American Journal of Education, 113, 67–99.Google Scholar
  89. Leyser, Y., Kapperman, G., & Keller, R. (1994). Teacher attitudes toward mainstreaming: a cross-cultural study in six nations. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 9, 1–15. doi: 10.1080/0885625940090101.Google Scholar
  90. Losen, D. J., & Orfield, G. (Eds.). (2002). Racial inequity in special education. Cambridge: Harvard Education Press.Google Scholar
  91. Lucas, S. R. (2001). Effectively maintained inequality: education transitions, track mobility, and social background effects. American Journal of Sociology, 106, 1642–1690. doi: 10.1086/321300.Google Scholar
  92. Maio, G. R., Haddock, G., Watt, S. E., & Hewstone, M. (2009). Implicit measures in applied contexts: an illustrative examination of antiracism advertising. In R. E. Petty, R. H. Fazio, & P. Briñol (Eds.), Attitudes: insights from the new implicit measures (pp. 327–357). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  93. Marder, C. (1992). Education after secondary school. In M. Wagner, R. D’Amico, C. Marder, L. Newman, & J. Blackorby (Eds.), What happens next? Trends in postschool outcomes of youth with disabilities. The second comprehensive report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students (pp. 3-1-3-39). Menlo Park, CA: SRI InternationalGoogle Scholar
  94. McConahay, J. B. (1986). Modern racism, ambivalence, and the modern racism scale. In J. F. Dovidio & S. L. Gaertner (Eds.), Prejudice, discrimination, and racism (pp. 91–125). San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
  95. Nelson, J. R., Benner, G. J., Lane, K., & Smith, B. W. (2004). Academic achievement of K-12 students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Exceptional Children, 71, 59–73.Google Scholar
  96. Nosek, B. A., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2005). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: II. Method variables and construct validity. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 166–180. doi: 10.1177/0146167204271418.Google Scholar
  97. Oakes, J. (2005). Keeping track: how schools structure inequality (2nd ed.). New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  98. Olson, M. A., & Fazio, R. H. (2009). Implicit and explicit measures of attitudes: the perspective of the MODE model. In R. E. Petty, R. H. Fazio, & P. Briñol (Eds.), Attitudes: insights from the new implicit measures (pp. 19–63). New York: Psychology.Google Scholar
  99. O’Brien, K. S., Hunter, J. A., & Banks, M. (2007). Implicit anti-fat bias in physical educators: physical attributes, ideology and socialization. International Journal of Obesity, 31, 308–314. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803398.Google Scholar
  100. Payne, B. K., Cheng, S. M., Govorun, O., & Stewart, B. D. (2005). An inkblot for attitudes: affect misattribution as implicit measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 277–293. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.89.3.277.Google Scholar
  101. Payne, B. K., McClernon, F. J., & Dobbins, I. G. (2007). Automatic affective responses to smoking cues. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 15, 400–409. doi: 10.1037/1064-1297.15.4.400.Google Scholar
  102. Petty, R. E., Fazio, R. H., & Briñol, P. (2009a). The new implicit measures: an overview. In R. E. Petty, R. H. Fazio, & P. Briñol (Eds.), Attitudes: insights from the new implicit measures (pp. 3–18). New York: Psychology.Google Scholar
  103. Petty, R. E., Fazio, R. H., & Briñol, P. (2009b). Preface. In R. E. Petty, R. H. Fazio, & P. Briñol (Eds.), Attitudes: insights from the new implicit measures (pp. xi–xiii). New York: Psychology.Google Scholar
  104. Pitkänen, P., & Kouki, S. (2002). Meeting foreign cultures: a survey of the attitudes of Finnish authorities towards immigrants and immigration. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 28, 103–118. doi: 10.1080/1369183012010395.Google Scholar
  105. Podell, D. M., & Soodak, L. C. (1993). Teacher efficacy and bias in special education referrals. The Journal of Educational Research, 86, 247–253. doi: 10.1080/00220671.1993.9941836.Google Scholar
  106. Portes, A., & MacLeod, D. (1999). Educating the second generation: determinants of academic achievement among children of immigrants in the United States. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 25, 373–396. doi: 10.1080/1369183X.1999.9976693.Google Scholar
  107. Pratto, F., & John, O. P. (1991). Automatic vigilance: the attention-grabbing power of negative social information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 380–391. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.61.3.380.Google Scholar
  108. Richeson, J. A., & Nussbaum, R. J. (2004). The impact of multiculturalism versus color-blindness on racial bias. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 417–423. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2003.09.002.Google Scholar
  109. Robinson, M. D., Meier, B. P., Zetocha, K. J., & McCaul, K. D. (2005). Smoking and the Implicit Association Test: when the contrast category determines the theoretical conclusions. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 27, 201–212. doi: 10.1207/s15324834basp2703_2.Google Scholar
  110. Rosenthal, R., & Jacobson, L. (1968). Pygmalion in the classroom. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.Google Scholar
  111. Roskos-Ewoldsen, D. R., & Fazio, R. H. (1992). On the orienting value of attitudes: attitude accessibility as a determinant of an objects’ attraction of visual attention. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 198–211. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.63.2.198.Google Scholar
  112. Rudman, L. A. (2004). Sources of implicit attitudes. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13, 79–82. doi: 10.1111/j.0963-7214.2004.00279.x.Google Scholar
  113. Rumberger, R. W. (1995). Dropping out of middle school: a multilevel analysis of students and schools. American Educational Research Journal, 32, 583–625. doi: 10.2307/1163325.Google Scholar
  114. Santavirta, N., Solovieva, S., & Theorell, T. (2007). The association between job strain and emotional exhaustion in a cohort of 1,028 Finnish teachers. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 213–228. doi: 10.1348/000709905X92045.Google Scholar
  115. Sas, M. M. (2009). Teacher candidates’ attitudes toward immigration and teaching learners of English as a second language. Las Vegas: University Libraries.Google Scholar
  116. Schnabel, K., Asendorpf, J. B., & Greenwald, A. G. (2008). Assessment of individual differences in implicit cognition. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 24, 210–217. doi: 10.1027/1015-5759.24.4.210.Google Scholar
  117. Schnabel, K., Banse, R., & Asendorpf, J. B. (2006). Assessment of implicit personality self-concept using the implicit association test (IAT): concurrent assessment of anxiousness and angriness. British Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 373–396. doi: 10.1348/014466605X49159.Google Scholar
  118. Schuette, R. A., & Fazio, R. H. (1995). Attitude accessibility and motivation as determinants of biased processing: a test of the MODE model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 704–710. doi: 10.1177/0146167295217005.Google Scholar
  119. Schwarz, N., & Bohner, G. (2001). The construction of attitudes. In A. Tesser & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of social psychology: intraindividual processes (pp. 436–457). Malden: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  120. Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (1996). Teacher perceptions of mainstreaming-inclusion, 1958–1995: a research synthesis. Exceptional Children, 63, 59–74.Google Scholar
  121. Shifrer, D., Muller, C., & Callahan, R. (2010). Disproportionality and learning disabilities: parsing apart race, socioeconomic status, and language. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 44, 246–257. doi: 10.1177/0022219410374236.Google Scholar
  122. Shore, S. M., Sachs, M. L., Lidicker, J. R., Brett, S. N., Wright, A. R., & Libonati, J. R. (2008). Decreased scholastic achievement in overweight middle school students. Obesity, 16, 1535–1538. doi: 10.1038/oby.2008.254.Google Scholar
  123. Simpson, A. W., & Erickson, M. T. (1983). Teachers’ verbal and nonverbal communication patters as a function of teacher race, student gender, and student race. American Educational Research Journal, 20, 183–198. doi: 10.3102/00028312020002183.Google Scholar
  124. Skiba, R. J., Simmons, A. B., Ritter, S., Gibb, A. C., Rausch, M. K., Cuadrado, J., et al. (2008). Achieving equity in special education: history, status, and current challenges. Exceptional Children, 74, 264–288.Google Scholar
  125. Skowronski, J. J., & Carlston, D. E. (1987). Social judgment and social memory: the role of cue diagnosticity in negativity, positivity, and extremity biases. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 689–699. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.52.4.689.Google Scholar
  126. Southworth, S., & Mickelson, R. A. (2007). The interactive effects of race, gender, and school composition on college track placement. Social Forces, 86, 497–523. doi: 10.1093/sf/86.2.497.Google Scholar
  127. Steffens, M. C. (2004). Is the implicit association test immune to faking? Experimental Psychology (formerly “Zeitschrift für Experimentelle Psychologie”), 51, 165–179.Google Scholar
  128. Stephenson, W. (1935). Correlating persons instead of tests. Journal of Personality, 4, 17–24. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1935.tb02022.x.Google Scholar
  129. Sullivan, A. L., & Artiles, A. J. (2011). Theorizing racial inequity in special education: applying structural inequity theory to disproportionality. Urban Education, 46, 1526–1552. doi: 10.1177/0042085911416014.Google Scholar
  130. Swanson, J. E., Rudman, L. A., & Greenwald, A. G. (2001). Using the implicit association test to investigate attitude-behavior consistency for stigmatised behavior. Cognition & Emotion, 15, 207–230. doi: 10.1080/0269993004200060.Google Scholar
  131. Terrill, M., & Mark, D. L. H. (2000). Preservice teachers’ expectations for schools with children of color and second-language learners. Journal of Teacher Education, 51, 149–155. doi: 10.1177/002248710005100209.Google Scholar
  132. van den Bergh, L., Denessen, E., Hornstra, L., Voeten, M., & Holland, R. W. (2010). The implicit prejudiced attitudes of teachers: relations to teacher expectations and the ethnic achievement gap. American Educational Research Journal, 47, 497–527. doi: 10.3102/0002831209353594.Google Scholar
  133. Villa, R., Thousand, J., Meyers, H., & Nevin, A. (1996). Teacher and administrator perceptions of heterogeneous education. Exceptional Children, 63, 29–45.Google Scholar
  134. Ward, J., Center, Y., & Bochner, S. (1994). A question of attitudes: integrating children with disabilities into regular classrooms. British Journal of Special Education, 21, 34–39. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8578.1994.tb00081.x.Google Scholar
  135. Webb, T. L., & Sheeran, P. (2006). Does changing behavioral intentions engender behavior change? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 249–268. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.132.2.249.
  136. Williams, D. R. (2003). The health of men: structured inequalities and opportunities. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 724–731. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.93.5.724.Google Scholar
  137. Wittenbrink, B., Judd, C. M., & Park, B. (2001). Spontaneous prejudice in context: variability in automatically activated attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(5), 815–827. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.81.5.815.Google Scholar
  138. Wittenbrink, B., & Schwarz, N. (2007). Introduction. In B. Wittenbrink & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Implicit measures of attitudes (pp. 1–16). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  139. Wolsko, C., Park, B., Judd, C. M., & Wittenbrink, B. (2000). Framing interethnic ideology: effects of multicultural and color-blind perspectives on judgments of groups and individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 635–654. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.78.4.635.Google Scholar
  140. Yang, Y., & Montgomery, D. (2013). Gaps or bridges in multicultural teacher education: a Q study of attitudes toward student diversity. Teaching and Teacher Education, 30, 27–37. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2012.10.003.Google Scholar
  141. Youngs, C. S., & Youngs, G. A. (2001). Predictors of mainstream teachers’ attitudes toward ESL students. TESOL Quarterly, 35, 97–120. doi: 10.2307/3587861.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Language and Literature, Humanities, Arts, and EducationUniversity of LuxembourgWalferdangeLuxembourg

Personalised recommendations