Advertisement

Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 339–348 | Cite as

Bullying in Schools: Addressing Desires, Not Only Behaviours

  • Ken Rigby
Reflection on the Field

Abstract

Currently the main approach in responding to bullying in schools is to focus on undesired behaviours and to apply sanctions. This approach is often ineffective as well as failing to address the needs of children as persons as distinct from the behaviour they produce. A proposed alternative approach is to inquire into the motivation of children who bully and to identify the desires that bullying behaviour seeks to satisfy. This paper provides a critique of the conception of bullying as located in the desire to hurt others, as proposed by Tattum and Tattum (1992). It examines a range of desires, as inferred from the reasons schoolchildren give for bullying others, that may, under some circumstances, lead them to engage in bullying. Finally, it considers how a primary focus on children’s desires rather than on their behaviour, may result in more effective and humane methods of dealing with the problem of bullying in schools.

Keywords

Bullying Schools Interventions Desires Behaviours 

References

  1. Aboud, F. E., & Fenwick, V. (1999). Exploring and evaluating school-based interventions to reduce prejudice. Journal of Social Issues, 55(4), 767–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychological Association Zero Tolerance Task Force. (2008). Are zero tolerance policies effective in the schools? An evidentiary review and recommendations. American Psychologist, 63, 852–862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anscombe, E. (2000). Intention (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Aronson, E. D. (2005). Reducing hostility and building compassion: Lessons from the jigsaw classroom. In A. G. Miller (Ed.), The social psychology of good and evil (pp. 469–488). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  5. Banks, T., & Zionts, P. (2009). Teaching a cognitive behavioral strategy to manage emotions. Intervention in School and Clinic, 44(5), 307–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bauman, S., Rigby, K., & Hoppa, K. (2008). US teachers’ and school counsellors’ strategies for handling school bullying incidents. Educational Psychology, 28(7), 837–856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carrera, M. V., DePalms, R., & Lameiras, M. (2011). Towards a more comprehensive understanding of bullying in social settings. Educational Psychology Review, 23, 479–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Curtis, R. C. (2008). Desire, self. Mind and the psychotherapies: Unifying psychological science and psychoanalysis. Lanham: Aronson.Google Scholar
  9. Farrington, D. P., & Ttofi, M. M. (2009). School-based programs to reduce bullying and victimization. Campbell Systematic Reviews. Oslo: Campbell Collaboration.Google Scholar
  10. Fiske, S. (2004). Social beings: A core motives approach to social psychology. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  11. Freud, S. (1949). The ego and the id. London: The Hogarth Press Ltd.Google Scholar
  12. Gini, G. (2006). Social cognition and moral cognition in bullying: What’s wrong? Aggressive Behavior, 32, 528–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Graves, K. N., Frabutt, J. M., & Vigliano, D. (2007). Teaching conflict resolution skills to middle and high school students through interactive drama and role play. Journal of School Violence, 6(4), 57–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Greenwald, A. G. (1992). New look 3: Unconscious cognition reclaimed. American Psychologist, 47(6), 766–779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hughes, J. N., & Chen, Q. (2011). Reciprocal effects of student-teacher and student-peer relatedness: Effects on academic self-efficacy. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 32(5), 28–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jacobson, R. B. (2007). School bullying and current educational practice: Re-imagining theories of educational transformation. Teachers College Record, 109(8), 1931–1956.Google Scholar
  17. Jolliffe, D., & Farrington, D. P. (2006). Examining the relationship between low empathy and bullying. Aggressive Behavior, 32(6), 540–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lewin, K. (1943). Defining the “Field at a given time.”. Psychological Review, 50, 292–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Marusic, B. (2010). The desires of others. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 91(3), 385–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Obermann, M. L. (2011). Moral disengagement in self-reported and peer-nominated school bullying. Aggressive Behavior, 37(2), 133–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  22. Oskan, Y., & Cifci, E. G. (2009). The effects of empathy level on peer bullying in schools. Humanity and Social Science Journal, 4(1), 31–38.Google Scholar
  23. Pepler, D. J., & Craig, W. M. (1995). A peek behind the fence: Naturalistic observations of aggressive children with remote audiovisual recording. Developmental Psychology, 31, 545–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pikas, A. (2002). New developments of the shared concern method. School Psychology International, 23(3), 307–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rigby, K. (1998). Manual for the peer relations questionnaire (PRQ). Point Lonsdale: The Professional Reading Guide.Google Scholar
  26. Rigby, K. (2010). Bullying interventions in schools: Six basic approaches. Camberwell: Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  27. Rigby, K. (2011). The method of shared concern: A positive approach to bullying. Camberwell: Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  28. Rigby, K., & Bauman, S. (2007). What teachers think should be done about cases of bullying, professional educator. Camberwell: Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  29. Rigby, K., & Bortolozzo, G. (2012 in press). Acceptance of self and others among schoolchildren: Implications for bullying at school. Third Book of ISPAR Proceedings.Google Scholar
  30. Rigby, K., & Griffiths, C. (2011). Addressing cases of bullying through the Method of Shared Concern. School Psychology International, 32, 345–357. See: http://spi.sagepub.com/content/current, downloaded October 31st 2011.
  31. Roland, E., & Galloway, D. (2002). Classroom influences on bullying. Educational Research, 44(3), 299–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ross, S. W., & Horner, R. H. (2009). Bully prevention in positive behaviour support. Applied Behavioral Analysis, 42(4), 747–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sairanen, L., & Pfeffer, K. (2011). Self-reported handling of bullying among junior high school teachers in Finland. School Psychology International, 32(3), 330–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Salmivalli, C., Kuukianen, A., Voetin, M., & Sinisammal, M. (2004). Targeting the group as a whole; the Finnish anti-bullying intervention. In P. K. Smith, D. Pepler, & K. Rigby (Eds.), Bullying in schools: How successful can interventions be? (pp. 251–274). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Scanlon, T. (1998). What we owe to each other. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Sherer, Y. P., & Nickerson, A. B. (2010). Anti-bullying practices in American schools: Perspectives of school psychologists. Psychology in the Schools, 47(3), 217–229.Google Scholar
  37. Slee, P. T., & Rigby, K. (1993). The relationship of Eysenck’s personality factors and self-esteem to bully/victim behaviour in Australian school boys. Personality and Individual Differences, 14, 371–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Smith, P. K., Howard, S., & Thompson, F. (2007). Use of the support group method to tackle bullying, and evaluation from schools and local authorities in England. Pastoral Care in Education, 25(2), 4–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Solberg, M. E., & Olweus, D. (2003). Prevalence estimation of school bullying with the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. Aggressive Behavior, 29(3), 239–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Soley, L. C., & Smith, A. L. (2008). Projective technique s for social science and business research. Milwaukee: The Southshore Press.Google Scholar
  41. Strawson, G. (1994). Mental reality. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  42. Tattum, D., & Tattum, E. (1992). Social education and personal development. London: David Fulton.Google Scholar
  43. Tew, M. (1998). Circle time: A much-neglected resource in secondary schools? Pastoral Care in Education, 16(3), 18–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Thorsborne, M., & Vinegrad, D. (2006). Restorative practice and the management of bullying: Rethinking behaviour management. Queenscliff: Inyahead Press. 5338 words.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EducationUniversity of South AustraliaAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.Hawke Research InstituteAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations