Auditory Sensitivity, Speech Perception, and Reading Development and Impairment
- 621 Downloads
While the importance of phonological sensitivity for understanding reading acquisition and impairment across orthographies is well documented, what underlies deficits in phonological sensitivity is not well understood. Some researchers have argued that speech perception underlies variability in phonological representations. Others have investigated the role of more general auditory sensitivity for reading development and reading difficulties, arguing that poor phonological representations may actually be due to broad underlying auditory deficits, which are not restricted to speech stimuli. We argue that these hypotheses are not necessarily mutually exclusive. In this review, we demonstrate that auditory sensitivity and speech perception can be integrated into a single developmental model, in which auditory sensitivity may have an indirect impact on reading; this impact is mediated by speech perception. In the model, we distinguish general auditory sensitivity as falling into at least two general categories: rhythmic and temporal. Correspondingly, speech perception itself can be distinguished as suprasegmental and segmental. Theoretically, the proposed model integrates a broad range of studies on general auditory and speech perception to suggest a developmental trajectory for reading acquisition that can be explored from before birth. Practically, the proposed model points to different ways of understanding and diagnosing reading difficulties and distinguishing reading difficulties across languages and orthographies.
KeywordsAuditory sensitivity Speech perception Reading
We are grateful to Dr. Benjamin Munson for his suggestions on an earlier version of this manuscript.
- Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT.Google Scholar
- Ahissar, M. (2007). Dyslexia and the anchoring-deficit hypothesis. Trends in Cognitive Science, 11, 458–465.Google Scholar
- Beckman, M. E., Munson, B., & Edwards, J. (2007). Vocabulary growth and the developmental expansion of types of phonological knowledge. In J. Cole & J. Hualde (Eds.), Laboratory phonology 9 (pp. 242–264). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
- Biermann, S., & Heil, P. (2000). Parallels between timing of onset responses of single neurons in cat and of evoked magnetic Welds in human auditory cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 84, 2426–2439.Google Scholar
- Cutler, A. (1990). Exploiting prosodic probabilities in speech segmentation. In G. Altmann (Ed.), Cognitive models of speech processing: Psycholinguistic and computational perspectives (pp. 105–121). Cambridge, MA: MIT.Google Scholar
- Fang, Z. (1990). Tone sandhi and tone perception. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 22, 255–259.Google Scholar
- Farmer, M. E., & Klein, R. M. (1995). The evidence for a temporal processing deficit linked to dyslexia: A review. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 2, 460–493.Google Scholar
- Goswami, U., Gerson, D., & Astru, L. (2009). Amplitude envelope perception, phonology and prosodic sensitivity in children with developmental dyslexia. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal. http://www.springerlink.com/content/eqk2318618670m36/. Accessed May 10, 2010.
- Jusczyk, P. W. (1992). Developing phonological categories from the speech signal. In C. A. Ferguson, L. Menn, & C. Stoel-Gammon (Eds.), Phonological development: Models, research, implications. Timonium, MD: York.Google Scholar
- Manis, F. R., & Keating, P. (2005). Speech perception in dyslexic children with and without language impairments. In H. W. Catts & A. G. Kamhi (Eds.), The connections between language and reading disabilities (pp. 77–99). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- McBride-Chang, C., Cho, J., Liu, H., Wagner, R. K., Shu, H., Zhou, A., et al. (2005). Changing models across cultures: Associations of phonological awareness and morphological structure awareness with vocabulary and word recognition in second graders from Beijing, Hong Kong, Korea, and the United States. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 92, 140–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McBride-Chang, C., Lam, F., Lam, C., Doo, S., Wong, S. W. L., & Chow, Y. Y. Y. (2008). Word recognition and cognitive profiles of Chinese pre-school children at risk for dyslexia through language delay or familial history of dyslexia. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 211–218.Google Scholar
- Metsala, J. L., & Walley, A. C. (1998). Spoken vocabulary growth and the segmental restructuring of lexical representations: Precursors to phonemic awareness and early reading ability. In J. L. Metsala & L. C. Ehri (Eds.), Word recognition in beginning literacy (pp. 89–120). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Rvachew, S., & Grawburg, M. (2006). Correlates of phonological awareness in preschoolers with speech sound disorders. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49, 74–87.Google Scholar
- Wood, C., & Terrell, C. (1998). Poor readers' ability to detect speech rhythm and perceive rapid speech. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 16, 397–413.Google Scholar
- Wood, C., Wade-Woolley, L., & Holliman, A. J. (2009). Prosodic awareness: Beyond phonemes. In C. Wood & V. Connelly (Eds.), Contemporary perspectives on reading and spelling (pp. 9–23). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Xu, Y. (1991). Depth of phonological recording in short-term memory. Memory & Cognition, 19, 263–273.Google Scholar