Exercise and Children’s Intelligence, Cognition, and Academic Achievement

  • Phillip D. TomporowskiEmail author
  • Catherine L. Davis
  • Patricia H. Miller
  • Jack A. Naglieri
Review Article


Studies that examine the effects of exercise on children’s intelligence, cognition, or academic achievement were reviewed and results were discussed in light of (a) contemporary cognitive theory development directed toward exercise, (b) recent research demonstrating the salutary effects of exercise on adults’ cognitive functioning, and (c) studies conducted with animals that have linked physical activity to changes in neurological development and behavior. Similar to adults, exercise facilitates children’s executive function (i.e., processes required to select, organize, and properly initiate goal-directed actions). Exercise may prove to be a simple, yet important, method of enhancing those aspects of children’s mental functioning central to cognitive development.


Exercise Physical activity Children Intelligence Cognition Academic achievement 


  1. Allegrante, J. P. (2004). Unfit to learn. Education Week, 24(14), 38.Google Scholar
  2. Alonso-Alonso, M., & Pascual-Leone, A. (2007). The right brain hypothesis for obesity. Journal of the American Medical Association, 297(16), 1819–1822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Amso, D., & Casey, B. J. (2006). Beyond what develops when. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15(1), 24–29.Google Scholar
  4. Baddeley, A. (1986). Working memory. New York: Oxford.Google Scholar
  5. Barde, Y. A. (1989). Trophic factors and neuronal survival. Neuron, 2, 1525–1534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Barkley, R. (1996). Linkages between attention and executive functions. In G. R. Lyon, & N. A. Krasnegor (Eds.) Attention, memory, and executive function (pp. 307–325). Baltimore, MD: Brooks.Google Scholar
  7. Black, J. E., Isaacs, K. R., Anderson, B. J., Alcantara, A. A., & Greenough, W. T. (1990). Learning causes synaptogenesis, whereas activity causes angiogenesis in cerebellar cortex of adult rats. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 87, 5568–5572.Google Scholar
  8. Black, J. E., Jones, T. A., Nelson, C. A., & Greenough, W. T. (1998). Neuronal plasticity and the developing brain. In S. Eth (Ed.) Handbook of child and adolescent psychiatry: Basic psychiatric science and treatment (vol. 6, (pp. 31–53)). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  9. Brisswalter, J. B., Collardeau, M., & Arcelin, R. (2002). Effects of acute physical exercise on cognitive performance. Sports Medicine, 32, 555–566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Brody, N. (1992). Intelligence (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: Academic.Google Scholar
  11. Brooks, G. A., Fahey, T. D., & White, T. P. (1996). Exercise physiology (2nd ed.). Mountain View: CA: Mayfield.Google Scholar
  12. Brown, B. J. (1967). The effect of an isometric strength program on the intellectual and social development of trainable retarded males. American Corrective Therapy Journal, 31, 44–48.Google Scholar
  13. Byrnes, J. P., & Fox, N. A. (1998). The educational relevance of research in cognitive neuroscience. Educational Psychology Review, 10, 297–342.Google Scholar
  14. California Department of Education (2005). A study of the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement in California using 2004 test results. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education.Google Scholar
  15. Campos, A. L. R., Sigulem, D. M., Moraes, D. E. B., Escrivaco, A. M., & Fishberg, M. (1996). Intelligent quotient of obese children and adolescents by the Weschler scale. Revista de Saude Publica, 30, 85–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Casey, B. J., Galvan, A., & Hare, T. A. (2005). Changes in cerebral functional organization during cognitive development. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 15(2), 239–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Casey, B. J., Giedd, J. N., & Thomas, K. M. (2000). Structural and functional brain development and its relation to cognitive development. Biological Psychology, 54, 241–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Castelli, D. M., Hillman, C. H., Buck, S. M., & Erwin, H. E. (2007). Physical fitness and academic achievement in third- and fifth-grade students. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 29(2), 239–252.Google Scholar
  19. Chodzko-Zajko, W. J., & Moore, K. A. (1994). Physical fitness and cognitive functioning in aging. Exercise and Sport Science Reviews, 22, 195–220.Google Scholar
  20. Coe, D. P., Pivarnik, J. M., Womack, C. J., Reeves, M. J., & Malina, R. M. (2006). Effect of physical education and activity levels on academic achievement in children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38, 1515–1519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Colcombe, S. J., & Kramer, A. F. (2003). Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older adults: A meta-analytic study. Psychological Science, 14, 125–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Colcombe, S. J., Kramer, A. F., Erickson, K. I., Scalf, P., McAuley, E., & Cohen, N. J., et al. (2004a). Cardiovascular fitness, cortical plasticity, and aging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 101(9), 3316–3321.Google Scholar
  23. Colcombe, S. J., Kramer, A. F., McAuley, E., Erickson, K. I., & Scalf, P. (2004b). Neurocognitive ageing and cardiovascular fitness. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, 24, 9–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Corder, W. O. (1966). Effects of physical education on the intellectual, physical, and social development of educable mentally retarded boys. Exceptional Children, 32, 357–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cunningham, W. R. (1987). Intellectual abilities and age. In K. W. Schaie, & C. Eisdorfer (Eds.) Annual review of gerontology and geriatrics (vol. 7, (pp. 117–134)). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  26. Das, J. P., Naglieri, J. A., & Kirby, J. R. (1994). Assessment of cognitive processes. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  27. Datar, A., Sturm, R., & Magnabosco, J. L. (2004). Childhood overweight and academic performance: national study of kindergartners and first-graders. Obesity Research, 12, 58–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Davis, C. L., Tomporowski, P. D., Boyle, C. A., Waller, J. L., Miller, P. H., Naglieri, J. A., et al. (2007). Effects of aerobic exercise on overweight children’s cognitive functioning: A randomized controlled trial. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport.Google Scholar
  29. Davranche, K., & Audiffren, M. (2004). Facilitating effects of exercise on information processing. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22, 419–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Diamond, A. (2002). Normal development of prefrontal cortex from birth to young adulthood: cognitive functions, anatomy, and biochemistry. In D. T. Stuss, & R. T. Knight (Eds.) Principles of frontal lobe function (pp. 466–503). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Dishman, R. K., Berthound, H.-R., Booth, F. W., Cotman, C. W., Edgerton, R., & Fleshner, M. R., et al. (2006). Neurobiology of exercise. Obesity, 14(3), 345–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Dustman, R. E., Emmerson, R., & Shearer, D. (1994). Physical activity, age, and cognitive-neuropsychological function. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 2, 143–181.Google Scholar
  33. Dwyer, T., Coonan, W. E., Leitch, D. R., Hetzel, B. S., & Baghurst, P. A. (1983). An investigation of the effects of daily physical activity on the health of primary school students in South Australia. International Journal of Epidemiology, 12, 308–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Dwyer, T., Sallis, J. F., Blizzard, L., Lazarus, R., & Dean, K. (2001). Relation of academic performance to physical activity and fitness in children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 13, 225–237.Google Scholar
  35. Ellis, N. R. (1969). A behavioral research strategy in mental retardation: defense and critique. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 73, 557–566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Ellis, H. C., & Hunt, R. R. (1993). Fundamentals of cognitive psychology (5th ed.). Madison, WI: Brown and Benchmark.Google Scholar
  37. Etnier, J. L., Nowell, P. M., Landers, D. M., & Sibley, B. A. (2006). A meta-regression to examine the relationship between aerobic fitness and cognitive performance. Brain Research Reviews, 52, 119–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Falkner, N. H., Neumark-Sztainer, D., Story, M., Jeffery, R. W., Beuhring, T., & Resnick, M. D. (2001). Social, educational, and psychological correlates of weight status in adolescents. Obesity Research, 9, 32–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Folkins, C. H., & Sime, W. E. (1981). Physical fitness training and mental health. American Psychologist, 36, 373–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gabler-Halle, D., Halle, J. W., & Chung, Y. B. (1993). The effects of aerobic exercise on psychological and behavioral variables of individuals with developmental disabilities: A critical review. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 14, 359–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Garlick, D. (2002). Understanding the nature of the general factor of intelligence: The role of individual differences in neural plasticity as an explanatory mechanism. Psychological Review, 109, 116–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Giedd, J. N., Blumenthal, J., Jeffries, N. O., Castellanos, F. X., Liu, H., & Zijdenbos, A., et al. (1999). Brain development during childhood and adolescence: A longitudinal MRI study. Nature Neuroscience, 2(10), 861–863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gogtay, N., Giedd, J. N., Lusk, L., Hayashi, K. M., Greenstein, D., & Vaituzis, A. C., et al. (2004). Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 101, 8174–8179.Google Scholar
  44. Greenough, W. T., & Black, J. E. (1992). Induction of brain structure by experience: Substrates for cognitive development. In C. A. Nelson (Ed.) Developmental behavioral neuroscience (vol. Vol. 24, (pp. 155–200)). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  45. Hall, C. D., Smith, A. L., & Keele, S. W. (2001). The impact of aerobic activity on cognitive function in older adults: A new synthesis based on the concept of executive control. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 13, 279–300.Google Scholar
  46. Hillman, C. H., Castelli, D., & Buck, S. M. (2005). Physical fitness and neurocognitive function in healthy preadolescent children. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 37, 1967–1974.Google Scholar
  47. Hillman, C. H., Kramer, A. F., Belopolsky, A. V., & Smith, D. P. (2006). A cross-sectional examination of age and physical activity on performance and event-related potentials in a task switching paradigm. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 59, 30–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hinkle, J. S., Tuckman, B. W., & Sampson, J. P. (1993). The psychology, physiology, and the creativity of middle school aerobic exercises. Elementary School Guidance & Counseling, 28(2), 133–145.Google Scholar
  49. Hughes, C. (2002). Executive functions and development: Emerging themes. Infant and Child Development, 11, 201–209.Google Scholar
  50. Huttenlocher, P. R. (1994). Synaptogenesis, synaptic elimination, and neural plasticity in human cerebral cortex. In C. A. Nelson (Ed.) Threats to optimal development: Integrating biological, psychological, and social risk factors (pp. 35–54). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  51. Huttenlocher, P. R., & Dabholkar, A. S. (1997). Regional differences in synaptogenesis in human cerebral cortex. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 387, 167–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Ismail, A. H. (1967). The effects of a well-organized physical education programme on intellectual performance. Research in Physical Education, 1, 31–38.Google Scholar
  53. Jensen, A. R. (1998). The g factor. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  54. Kahneman, D. (1973). Attention and effort. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  55. Kail, R. (2007). Longitudinal evidence that increases in processing speed and working memory enhance children’s reasoning. Psychological Science, 18(4), 312–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Keays, J. J., & Allison, K. R. (1995). The effects of regular moderate to vigorous physical activity on student outcomes. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 86, 62–65.Google Scholar
  57. Kirkendall, D. R. (1986). Effects of physical activity on intellectual development and academic performance. In M. Lee, H. M. Eckert, & G. A. Stull (Eds.) Effects of physical activity on children: A special tribute to Mabel Lee (pp. 49–63). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  58. Kramer, A. F., Hahn, S., Cohen, N. J., Banich, M. T., McAuley, E., & Harrison, C. R., et al. (1999a). Ageing, fitness and neurocognitive function. Nature, 400, 418–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kramer, A. F., Hahn, S., & Gopher, D. (1999b). Task coordination and aging: explorations of executive control processes in the task switching paradigm. Acta Psychologica, 1010, 339–378.Google Scholar
  60. Kramer, A. F., Hahn, S., & McAuley, E. (2000). Influence of aerobic fitness on the neurocognitive function of older adults. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 8, 379–385.Google Scholar
  61. Lareau, A. (2000). Social class and the daily lives of children: A study from the United States. Childhood: A Global Journal of Child Research, 7(2), 155–171.Google Scholar
  62. Lezak, M. D., Howieson, D. B., & Loring, D. W. (2004). Neuropsychological assessment (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Li, X. (1995). A study of intelligence and personality in children with simple obesity. International Journal of Obesity Related Metabolic Disorders, 19, 355–357.Google Scholar
  64. Lipsey, M. W. (1990). Design sensitivity: statistical power for experimental research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  65. Lyon, G. R. (1996). The need for conceptual and theoretical clarity in the study of attention, memory, and executive function. In N. A. Krasnegor (Ed.) Attention, memory, and executive function (pp. 3–9). London: Brooks.Google Scholar
  66. Mackintosh, N. J. (1998). IQ and human intelligence. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Mayer, R. E. (1998). Does the brain have a place in educational psychology? Educational Psychology Review, 10, 389–396.Google Scholar
  68. McMorris, T., & Graydon, J. (2000). The effect of incremental exercise on cognitive performance. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 31, 66–81.Google Scholar
  69. Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A., & Wager, T. D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41, 49–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Morgan, W. P. (1981). Psychological benefits of physical activity. In F. J. Nagle, & H. J. Montoye (Eds.) Exercise, health, and disease (pp. 299–314). Springfield, IL: Charles Corbin.Google Scholar
  71. Morgan, W. P., Roberts, J. A., Brand, F. R., & Feinerman, A. D. (1970). Psychological effects of chronic physical activity. Medicine and Science in Sports, 2, 213–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Naglieri, J. A. (2003). Current advances and intervention for children with learning disabilities. In A. Mastropoeri (Ed.), Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities: Volume 16. Identification and assessment (pp. 163–190).Google Scholar
  73. Naglieri, J. A., & Das, J. P. (1997). Cognitive assessment system. Itasca, IL: Riverside.Google Scholar
  74. Naglieri, J. A., & Kaufman, J. C. (2001). Understanding intelligence, giftedness and creativity using PASS theory. Roeper Review, 23(3), 151–156.Google Scholar
  75. Nelson, C. A. (1999). Neural plasticity and human development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8, 42–45.Google Scholar
  76. Nelson, C. A. (2000). The neurobiological bases of early intervention. In J. P. Shonkoff, & S. J. Meisels (Eds.) Handbook of early childhood intervention ((pp. 204–227)2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  77. O’Boyle, M. W., & Gill, H. S. (1998). On the relevance of research findings in cognitive neuroscience to educational practice. Educational Psychology Review, 10, 397–409.Google Scholar
  78. Pate, R. R., Long, B. J., & Heath, G. W. (1994). Descriptive epidemiology of physical activity in adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science, 6, 434–447.Google Scholar
  79. Pellis, S. M., & Pellis, V. C. (2007). Rough-and-tumble play and the development of the social brain. Current directions in psychological science, 16(2), 95–98.Google Scholar
  80. Pereira, A. C., Huddleston, D. E., Brickman, A. M., Sosunov, A. A., Hen, R., & McKhann, G. M., et al. (2007). An in vivo correlate of exercise-induced neurogenesis in adult dentate gyrus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 104(13), 5638–5643.Google Scholar
  81. Plante, T. G., & Rodin, J. (1990). Physical fitness and enhanced psychological health. Current Psychology: Research & Reviews, 9, 3–24.Google Scholar
  82. Sallis, J. F., McKenzie, T. L., Kolody, B., Lewis, M., Marshall, S., & Rosengard, P. (1999). Effects of health-related physical education on academic achievement: Project SPARK. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 70, 127–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Sanders, A. F. (1998). Elements of human performance. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  84. Shephard, R. J. (1997). Curricular physical activity and academic performance. Pediatric Exercise Science, 9, 113–126.Google Scholar
  85. Shephard, R. J., Volle, M., Lavallee, H., LaBarre, R., Jequier, J. C., & Rajic, M. (1984). Required physical activity and academic grades: A controlled longitudinal study. In I. Valimaki (Ed.) Children and sport (pp. 58–63). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  86. Sibley, B. A., & Etnier, J. L. (2003). The relationship between physical activity and cognition in children: A meta-analysis. Pediatric Exercise Science, 15, 243–256.Google Scholar
  87. Sowell, E. R., Thompson, P. M., Holmes, C. J., Batth, R., Jernigan, T. I., & Toga, A. W. (1999). Localizing age-related changes in brain structure between childhood and adolescence using statistical parametric mapping. NeuroImage, 9, 587–597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Sowell, E. R., Thompson, P. M., Leonard, D. M., Welcome, S. E., Kan, F., & Toga, A. W. (2004). Longitudinal mapping of cortical thickness and brain growth in normal children. Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 8223–8231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Spirduso, W. W., & Clifford, P. (1978). Replication of age and physical activity effects on reaction and movement time. Journal of Gerontology, 33, 26–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. St Clair-Thompson, H. L., & Gathercole, S. E. (2006). Executive functions and achievements in school: Shifting, updating, inhibition, and working memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 59(4), 745–759.Google Scholar
  91. Stockman, I. J. (2004). A theoretical framework for clinical intervention with pervasive developmental disorders. In I. J. Stockman (Ed.) Movement and action in learning and development: clinical implications for pervasive developmental disorders (pp. 21–31). New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  92. Stones, M. J., & Kozma, A. (1989). Age, exercise, and coding performance. Psychology and Aging, 4, 190–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Taras, H. (2005). Physical activity and student performance at school. Journal of School Health, 75, 214–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Taras, H., & Potts-Datema, W. (2005). Obesity and student performance at school. Journal of School Health, 75(8), 291–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Thalheimer, W., & Cook, S. (2002). How to calculate effect sizes from published research articles: A simplified methodology.
  96. Thelen, E. (2004). The central role of action in typical and atypical development: A dynamical systems perspective. In I. J. Stockman (Ed.) Movement and action in learning and development: Clinical implications for pervasive developmental disorders. New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  97. Tomporowski, P. D. (2003a). Cognitive and behavioral responses to acute exercise in youth: A review. Pediatric Exercise Science, 15, 348–359.Google Scholar
  98. Tomporowski, P. D. (2003b). Effects of acute bouts of exercise on cognition. Acta Psychologica, 112, 297–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Tomporowski, P. D. (2006). Physical activity, cognition, and aging: A review of reviews. In L. W. Poon, W. J. Chodzko-Zajko, & P. D. Tomporowski (Eds.) Active living, cognitive functioning, and aging (pp. 15–32). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  100. Tomporowski, P. D., & Ellis, N. R. (1984). Effects of exercise on the physical fitness, intelligence, and adaptive behavior of institutionalized mentally retarded adults. Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 5, 329–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Tomporowski, P. D., & Ellis, N. R. (1985). The effects of exercise training on the health, intelligence, and adaptive behavior of institutionalized mentally retarded adults: A systematic replication. Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 6, 456–473.Google Scholar
  102. Tomporowski, P. D., & Ellis, N. R. (1986). The effects of exercise on cognitive processes: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 338–346.Google Scholar
  103. Tremblay, M. S., Inman, J. W., & Willms, J. D. (2000). The relationship between physical activity, self-esteem, and academic achievement. Pediatric Exercise Science, 12, 312–323.Google Scholar
  104. Tuckman, B. W. (1999). The effects of exercise on children and adolescents. In M. Hersen (Ed.) Handbook of pediatric and adolescent health (pp. 275–286). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  105. Tuckman, B. W., & Hinkle, J. S. (1986). An experimental study of the physical and psychological effects of aerobic exercise on schoolchildren. Health Psychology, 5(3), 197–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Vaynman, S., & Gomez-Pinilla, F. (2006). Revenge of the “Sit”: How lifestyle impacts neuronal and cognitive health through molecular systems that interface energy metabolism with neuronal plasticity. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 84, 699–715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Welk, G. J., Morrow, J. R. J., & Falls, H. B. (2002). Fitnessgram reference guide. Dallas, TX: The Cooper Institute.Google Scholar
  108. Welsh, M. C., Pennington, B. F., & Groisser, D. B. (1991). A normative-developmental study of executive function: A window on prefrontal function in children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 7(2), 131–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Will, B., Galani, R., Kelche, C., & Rosenzweig, M. R. (2004). Recovery from brain injury in animal: Relative efficacy of environmental enrichment, physical exercise or formal training (1990–2002). Progress in Neurobiology, 72, 167–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Wilmore, J. H., & Costill, D. L. (2004). Physiology of sport and exercise (3rd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  111. Wolf, S. A., Kronenberg, G., Lehmann, K., Blankenship, A., Overall, R., & Staufenbiel, M., et al. (2006). Cognitive and physical activity differently modulate disease progression in the amyloid precursor protein (APP)-23 model of Alzheimer’s disease. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 1314–1323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Zervas, Y., Apostolos, D., & Klissouras, V. (1991). Influence of physical exertion on mental performance with reference to training. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 73, 1215–1221.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Phillip D. Tomporowski
    • 1
    Email author
  • Catherine L. Davis
    • 2
  • Patricia H. Miller
    • 1
  • Jack A. Naglieri
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of KinesiologyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  2. 2.Medical College of GeorgiaAugustaUSA
  3. 3.George Mason UniversityFairfaxUSA

Personalised recommendations